The antifungal and cancer cell growth inhibitory activities of 1-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-nitro-ethylene (TMPN) were examined. TMPN was fungicidal for the majority of 132 reference strains and clinical isolates tested, including those resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B or flucytosine. Minimum fungicidal concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration (MFC/MIC) ratios were ≤2 for 96% of Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates and 71% of Candida albicans clinical isolates. TMPN was fungicidal for a variety of other basidiomycetes, endomycetes and hyphomycetes, and its activity was unaffected by alterations in media pH. The frequency of occurrence of fungal spontaneous mutations to resistance was <10-6. Kill-curve analyses confirmed the fungicidal action of TMPN, and demonstrated that killing was concentration- and time-dependent. At sub-MIC exposure to TMPN, C. albicans did not exhibit yeast/hyphae switching. TMPN was slightly cytotoxic for murine and human cancer cell lines (GI50=1-4 μg ml-1), and weakly inhibited mammalian tubulin polymerization (IC50=0.60 μg ml-1).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases