An Investigation of Relational Risk and Promotive Factors Associated with Adolescent Female Aggression

Katie Stalker, Paul R. Smokowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations


Despite growing trends in adolescent female aggression, much adolescent aggression research has focused on males to the exclusion of their female counterparts. Using relational-cultural and social role theories, the current study identifies the risk and promotive factors associated with adolescent female aggression. Using data from the Rural Adaptation Project (a 5 year longitudinal panel study of youth from two rural, ethnically diverse, low income counties in North Carolina), a 2-level hierarchical linear model was estimated (N = 3580). Internalizing symptoms, association with delinquent friends, peer pressure, and parent–child conflict emerged as risk factors whereas teacher support was a significant promotive factor. Results suggest that interventions should focus on negative relationships in both the parent and peer domains and underscore the need for mental health services for aggressive girls.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalChild Psychiatry and Human Development
StateAccepted/In press - Nov 29 2016



  • Adolescence
  • Aggression
  • Gender
  • Risk factors
  • Rural

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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