An estimation technique to assign contribution factors for loop flows in an interconnected power system

S. Suryanarayanan, G. T. Heydt, R. G. Farmer, S. Chakka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations


This article describes the significance of loop flows in an interconnected electric power system. Loop flows (unscheduled flows) are the difference between scheduled and actual power flows. A brief discussion of the consequences of loop flow is given. The article illustrates a new method of identifying the contributions of the loop flows occurring in a system to the participating utilities by means of a contribution factor matrix. A method to estimate the loop flows in the system using a type of Lp estimation is described, and the estimation technique is further employed in designing the contribution factor matrix. The potential application is in transmission pricing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)813-826
Number of pages14
JournalElectric Power Components and Systems
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2004



  • Circulating flow
  • Electricity markets
  • Interconnected networks
  • Loop flow
  • Loops
  • Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse
  • Parallel flow
  • State estimation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this