Ambivalence in organizations: A multilevel approach

Blake Ashforth, Kristie M. Rogers, Michael G. Pratt, Camille Pradies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

193 Scopus citations


The experience of simultaneously positive and negative orientations toward a person, goal, task, idea, and such appears to be quite common in organizations, but it is poorly understood. We develop a multilevel perspective on ambivalence in organizations that demonstrates how this phenomenon is integral to certain cognitive and emotional processes and important outcomes. Specifically, we discuss the organizational triggers of ambivalence and the cognitive and emotional mechanisms through which ambivalence diffuses between the individual and collective levels of analysis. We offer an integrative framework of major responses to highly intense ambivalence (avoidance, domination, compromise, and holism) that is applicable to actors at the individual and collective levels. The positive and negative outcomes associated with each response, and the conditions under which each is most effective, are explored. Although ambivalence is uncomfortable for actors, it has the potential to foster growth in the actor as well as highly adaptive and effective behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1453-1478
Number of pages26
JournalOrganization Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2014


  • Ambivalence
  • Avoidance
  • Compromise
  • Coping mechanisms
  • Defense mechanisms
  • Domination
  • Dualities
  • Emotional contagion
  • Holism
  • Hybrid identities
  • Multilevel
  • Paradox
  • Role conflicts
  • Sensegiving
  • Sensemaking
  • Wisdom

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Strategy and Management
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


Dive into the research topics of 'Ambivalence in organizations: A multilevel approach'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this