Exergames are video games that use exertion-based interfaces to promote physical activity, fitness, and gross motor skill development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an organizing framework based on principles of learning theory to classify and rank exergames according to embedded behavior change principles. Behavioral contingencies represent a key theory-based game design principle that can be objectively measured, evaluated, and manipulated to help explain and change the frequency and duration of game play. Case examples are presented that demonstrate how to code dimensions of behavior, consequences of behavior, and antecedents of behavior. Our framework may be used to identify game principles which, in the future, might be used to predict which games are most likely to promote adoption and maintenance of leisure time physical activity.