ZM-SPECK: A fast and memoryless image coder for multimedia sensor networks

Naimur Rahman Kidwai, Ekram Khan, Martin Reisslein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The set partitioned embedded block (SPECK) algorithm is an efficient block-based image coder to encode wavelet transformed images. SPECK uses linked lists to track significant/insignificant coefficients and block sets, thereby having a large memory requirement that increases with the encoding rate. Furthermore, multiple memory read/write operations and list management slow down the algorithm. In addition, the implementation of the traditional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is memory intensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it is difficult to implement image coding using the traditional DWT and SPECK algorithm on low-cost visual sensor nodes. Most of the existing studies on low-memory implementations of the SPECK algorithm attempt to replace the dynamic memory of linked lists by a static memory in the form of fixed-length state tables/markers. In this paper, a fast and memoryless image coder is proposed, which uses the fractional wavelet filter to calculate the DWT coefficients of the image and a zero-memory listless SPECK algorithm for quantization and coding of the DWT coefficients. The proposed algorithm, referred as zero-memory SPECK (ZM-SPECK), completely eliminates the linked lists and only uses a few registers to perform some low-level arithmetic/logical operations. The elimination of linked lists also reduces the memory access time, thereby making ZM-SPECK faster than the original SPECK algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed ZM-SPECK coder outperforms the contemporary state-of-the-art wavelet image coders in terms of memory requirement and computational complexity, while retaining their coding efficiency. The proposed ZM-SPECK image coder is thus very well suited for image communication in visual sensor networks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7386559
Pages (from-to)2575-2587
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Volume16
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2016

Fingerprint

multimedia
coders
Sensor networks
Data storage equipment
sensors
lists
Discrete wavelet transforms
wavelet analysis
coding
coefficients
access time
requirements
registers
retaining
Image coding
Sensor nodes
markers
elimination
Computational complexity
communication

Keywords

  • Fractional wavelet filter
  • Memory efficient image codec
  • SPECK
  • Visual sensors
  • Wireless multimedia sensor networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

ZM-SPECK : A fast and memoryless image coder for multimedia sensor networks. / Kidwai, Naimur Rahman; Khan, Ekram; Reisslein, Martin.

In: IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 16, No. 8, 7386559, 15.04.2016, p. 2575-2587.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kidwai, Naimur Rahman ; Khan, Ekram ; Reisslein, Martin. / ZM-SPECK : A fast and memoryless image coder for multimedia sensor networks. In: IEEE Sensors Journal. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 8. pp. 2575-2587.
@article{ad17bfd5e1e34b7babb2694d4c2bbfc8,
title = "ZM-SPECK: A fast and memoryless image coder for multimedia sensor networks",
abstract = "The set partitioned embedded block (SPECK) algorithm is an efficient block-based image coder to encode wavelet transformed images. SPECK uses linked lists to track significant/insignificant coefficients and block sets, thereby having a large memory requirement that increases with the encoding rate. Furthermore, multiple memory read/write operations and list management slow down the algorithm. In addition, the implementation of the traditional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is memory intensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it is difficult to implement image coding using the traditional DWT and SPECK algorithm on low-cost visual sensor nodes. Most of the existing studies on low-memory implementations of the SPECK algorithm attempt to replace the dynamic memory of linked lists by a static memory in the form of fixed-length state tables/markers. In this paper, a fast and memoryless image coder is proposed, which uses the fractional wavelet filter to calculate the DWT coefficients of the image and a zero-memory listless SPECK algorithm for quantization and coding of the DWT coefficients. The proposed algorithm, referred as zero-memory SPECK (ZM-SPECK), completely eliminates the linked lists and only uses a few registers to perform some low-level arithmetic/logical operations. The elimination of linked lists also reduces the memory access time, thereby making ZM-SPECK faster than the original SPECK algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed ZM-SPECK coder outperforms the contemporary state-of-the-art wavelet image coders in terms of memory requirement and computational complexity, while retaining their coding efficiency. The proposed ZM-SPECK image coder is thus very well suited for image communication in visual sensor networks.",
keywords = "Fractional wavelet filter, Memory efficient image codec, SPECK, Visual sensors, Wireless multimedia sensor networks",
author = "Kidwai, {Naimur Rahman} and Ekram Khan and Martin Reisslein",
year = "2016",
month = "4",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1109/JSEN.2016.2519600",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "16",
pages = "2575--2587",
journal = "IEEE Sensors Journal",
issn = "1530-437X",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - ZM-SPECK

T2 - A fast and memoryless image coder for multimedia sensor networks

AU - Kidwai, Naimur Rahman

AU - Khan, Ekram

AU - Reisslein, Martin

PY - 2016/4/15

Y1 - 2016/4/15

N2 - The set partitioned embedded block (SPECK) algorithm is an efficient block-based image coder to encode wavelet transformed images. SPECK uses linked lists to track significant/insignificant coefficients and block sets, thereby having a large memory requirement that increases with the encoding rate. Furthermore, multiple memory read/write operations and list management slow down the algorithm. In addition, the implementation of the traditional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is memory intensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it is difficult to implement image coding using the traditional DWT and SPECK algorithm on low-cost visual sensor nodes. Most of the existing studies on low-memory implementations of the SPECK algorithm attempt to replace the dynamic memory of linked lists by a static memory in the form of fixed-length state tables/markers. In this paper, a fast and memoryless image coder is proposed, which uses the fractional wavelet filter to calculate the DWT coefficients of the image and a zero-memory listless SPECK algorithm for quantization and coding of the DWT coefficients. The proposed algorithm, referred as zero-memory SPECK (ZM-SPECK), completely eliminates the linked lists and only uses a few registers to perform some low-level arithmetic/logical operations. The elimination of linked lists also reduces the memory access time, thereby making ZM-SPECK faster than the original SPECK algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed ZM-SPECK coder outperforms the contemporary state-of-the-art wavelet image coders in terms of memory requirement and computational complexity, while retaining their coding efficiency. The proposed ZM-SPECK image coder is thus very well suited for image communication in visual sensor networks.

AB - The set partitioned embedded block (SPECK) algorithm is an efficient block-based image coder to encode wavelet transformed images. SPECK uses linked lists to track significant/insignificant coefficients and block sets, thereby having a large memory requirement that increases with the encoding rate. Furthermore, multiple memory read/write operations and list management slow down the algorithm. In addition, the implementation of the traditional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is memory intensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it is difficult to implement image coding using the traditional DWT and SPECK algorithm on low-cost visual sensor nodes. Most of the existing studies on low-memory implementations of the SPECK algorithm attempt to replace the dynamic memory of linked lists by a static memory in the form of fixed-length state tables/markers. In this paper, a fast and memoryless image coder is proposed, which uses the fractional wavelet filter to calculate the DWT coefficients of the image and a zero-memory listless SPECK algorithm for quantization and coding of the DWT coefficients. The proposed algorithm, referred as zero-memory SPECK (ZM-SPECK), completely eliminates the linked lists and only uses a few registers to perform some low-level arithmetic/logical operations. The elimination of linked lists also reduces the memory access time, thereby making ZM-SPECK faster than the original SPECK algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed ZM-SPECK coder outperforms the contemporary state-of-the-art wavelet image coders in terms of memory requirement and computational complexity, while retaining their coding efficiency. The proposed ZM-SPECK image coder is thus very well suited for image communication in visual sensor networks.

KW - Fractional wavelet filter

KW - Memory efficient image codec

KW - SPECK

KW - Visual sensors

KW - Wireless multimedia sensor networks

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84962092469&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84962092469&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/JSEN.2016.2519600

DO - 10.1109/JSEN.2016.2519600

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84962092469

VL - 16

SP - 2575

EP - 2587

JO - IEEE Sensors Journal

JF - IEEE Sensors Journal

SN - 1530-437X

IS - 8

M1 - 7386559

ER -