Xenopus laevis egg jelly contains small proteins that are essential to fertilization

John H. Olson, Douglas E. Chandler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The eggs of Xenopus laevis are surrounded by investment layers of egg jelly that interact with the sperm immediately prior to fertilization. Components of these egg jelly layers are necessary for the fertilization of the egg by incoming sperm. Eggs which are stripped of their jelly layers are refractile to fertilization by sperm, but the addition of solubilized jelly promotes fertilization. We have shown previously that the egg jelly layers are composed of a fibrous network of glycoconjugates which loosely hold smaller diffusible components. Extracts of these diffusible components were prepared by incubation of freshly ovulated eggs in high-salt buffers for 12 h at 4°C. This diffusible component extract, when incubated with sperm, promoted the sperm's ability to fertilize dejellied eggs in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the high-molecular-weight 'structural' glycoconjugates of jelly that remain after extraction of the diffusible components did not increase fertilization efficiency of dejellied eggs nor did nonspecific proteins, carbohydrate polymers, or organic polymers. The diffusible components, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, consisted of a mixture of proteins from 4 to 180 kDa. The protein responsible for fertilization rescue appeared to be <50 kDa and appeared to self-aggregate or to bind to larger proteins. This protein component was required during sperm binding to the egg, its action required an intact egg vitelline envelope, and its action was independent of large soluble polymers such as Ficoll.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401-410
Number of pages10
JournalDevelopmental Biology
Volume210
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 15 1999

Fingerprint

Xenopus laevis
Fertilization
Ovum
Spermatozoa
Eggs
Polymers
Proteins
Glycoconjugates
Ficoll
Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
Buffers
Salts
Molecular Weight
Carbohydrates

Keywords

  • Egg jelly
  • Fertilization
  • Sperm-egg interaction
  • Xenopus laevis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology

Cite this

Xenopus laevis egg jelly contains small proteins that are essential to fertilization. / Olson, John H.; Chandler, Douglas E.

In: Developmental Biology, Vol. 210, No. 2, 15.06.1999, p. 401-410.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Olson, John H. ; Chandler, Douglas E. / Xenopus laevis egg jelly contains small proteins that are essential to fertilization. In: Developmental Biology. 1999 ; Vol. 210, No. 2. pp. 401-410.
@article{95fe0a09bcd542ba8308541e2ab5d4e1,
title = "Xenopus laevis egg jelly contains small proteins that are essential to fertilization",
abstract = "The eggs of Xenopus laevis are surrounded by investment layers of egg jelly that interact with the sperm immediately prior to fertilization. Components of these egg jelly layers are necessary for the fertilization of the egg by incoming sperm. Eggs which are stripped of their jelly layers are refractile to fertilization by sperm, but the addition of solubilized jelly promotes fertilization. We have shown previously that the egg jelly layers are composed of a fibrous network of glycoconjugates which loosely hold smaller diffusible components. Extracts of these diffusible components were prepared by incubation of freshly ovulated eggs in high-salt buffers for 12 h at 4°C. This diffusible component extract, when incubated with sperm, promoted the sperm's ability to fertilize dejellied eggs in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the high-molecular-weight 'structural' glycoconjugates of jelly that remain after extraction of the diffusible components did not increase fertilization efficiency of dejellied eggs nor did nonspecific proteins, carbohydrate polymers, or organic polymers. The diffusible components, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, consisted of a mixture of proteins from 4 to 180 kDa. The protein responsible for fertilization rescue appeared to be <50 kDa and appeared to self-aggregate or to bind to larger proteins. This protein component was required during sperm binding to the egg, its action required an intact egg vitelline envelope, and its action was independent of large soluble polymers such as Ficoll.",
keywords = "Egg jelly, Fertilization, Sperm-egg interaction, Xenopus laevis",
author = "Olson, {John H.} and Chandler, {Douglas E.}",
year = "1999",
month = "6",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1006/dbio.1999.9281",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "210",
pages = "401--410",
journal = "Developmental Biology",
issn = "0012-1606",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Xenopus laevis egg jelly contains small proteins that are essential to fertilization

AU - Olson, John H.

AU - Chandler, Douglas E.

PY - 1999/6/15

Y1 - 1999/6/15

N2 - The eggs of Xenopus laevis are surrounded by investment layers of egg jelly that interact with the sperm immediately prior to fertilization. Components of these egg jelly layers are necessary for the fertilization of the egg by incoming sperm. Eggs which are stripped of their jelly layers are refractile to fertilization by sperm, but the addition of solubilized jelly promotes fertilization. We have shown previously that the egg jelly layers are composed of a fibrous network of glycoconjugates which loosely hold smaller diffusible components. Extracts of these diffusible components were prepared by incubation of freshly ovulated eggs in high-salt buffers for 12 h at 4°C. This diffusible component extract, when incubated with sperm, promoted the sperm's ability to fertilize dejellied eggs in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the high-molecular-weight 'structural' glycoconjugates of jelly that remain after extraction of the diffusible components did not increase fertilization efficiency of dejellied eggs nor did nonspecific proteins, carbohydrate polymers, or organic polymers. The diffusible components, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, consisted of a mixture of proteins from 4 to 180 kDa. The protein responsible for fertilization rescue appeared to be <50 kDa and appeared to self-aggregate or to bind to larger proteins. This protein component was required during sperm binding to the egg, its action required an intact egg vitelline envelope, and its action was independent of large soluble polymers such as Ficoll.

AB - The eggs of Xenopus laevis are surrounded by investment layers of egg jelly that interact with the sperm immediately prior to fertilization. Components of these egg jelly layers are necessary for the fertilization of the egg by incoming sperm. Eggs which are stripped of their jelly layers are refractile to fertilization by sperm, but the addition of solubilized jelly promotes fertilization. We have shown previously that the egg jelly layers are composed of a fibrous network of glycoconjugates which loosely hold smaller diffusible components. Extracts of these diffusible components were prepared by incubation of freshly ovulated eggs in high-salt buffers for 12 h at 4°C. This diffusible component extract, when incubated with sperm, promoted the sperm's ability to fertilize dejellied eggs in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the high-molecular-weight 'structural' glycoconjugates of jelly that remain after extraction of the diffusible components did not increase fertilization efficiency of dejellied eggs nor did nonspecific proteins, carbohydrate polymers, or organic polymers. The diffusible components, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, consisted of a mixture of proteins from 4 to 180 kDa. The protein responsible for fertilization rescue appeared to be <50 kDa and appeared to self-aggregate or to bind to larger proteins. This protein component was required during sperm binding to the egg, its action required an intact egg vitelline envelope, and its action was independent of large soluble polymers such as Ficoll.

KW - Egg jelly

KW - Fertilization

KW - Sperm-egg interaction

KW - Xenopus laevis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033564463&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033564463&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1006/dbio.1999.9281

DO - 10.1006/dbio.1999.9281

M3 - Article

VL - 210

SP - 401

EP - 410

JO - Developmental Biology

JF - Developmental Biology

SN - 0012-1606

IS - 2

ER -