X-ray Beam Induced Current Measurements for Multi-Modal X-ray Microscopy of Solar Cells

Christina Ossig, Tara Nietzold, Bradley West, Mariana Bertoni, Gerald Falkenberg, Christian G. Schroer, Michael E. Stuckelberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

X-ray beam induced current (XBIC) measurements allow mapping of the nanoscale performance of electronic devices such as solar cells. Ideally, XBIC is employed simultaneously with other techniques within a multi-modal X-ray microscopy approach. An example is given herein combining XBIC with X-ray fluorescence to enable point-by-point correlations of the electrical performance with chemical composition. For the highest signal-to-noise ratio in XBIC measurements, lock-in amplification plays a crucial role. By this approach, the X-ray beam is modulated by an optical chopper upstream of the sample. The modulated X-ray beam induced electrical signal is amplified and demodulated to the chopper frequency using a lock-in amplifier. By optimizing low-pass filter settings, modulation frequency, and amplification amplitudes, noise can efficiently be suppressed for the extraction of a clear XBIC signal. A similar setup can be used to measure the X-ray beam induced voltage (XBIV). Beyond standard XBIC/XBIV measurements, XBIC can be measured with bias light or bias voltage applied such that outdoor working conditions of solar cells can be reproduced during in-situ and operando measurements. Ultimately, the multi-modal and multi-dimensional evaluation of electronic devices at the nanoscale enables new insights into the complex dependencies between composition, structure, and performance, which is an important step towards solving the materials' paradigm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of visualized experiments : JoVE
Issue number150
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 20 2019
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Induced currents
Electric current measurement
Microscopy
Solar cells
Microscopic examination
X-Rays
X rays
Amplification
Equipment and Supplies
Voltage measurement
Low pass filters
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Frequency modulation
Bias voltage
Chemical analysis
Noise
Signal to noise ratio
Fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

Cite this

X-ray Beam Induced Current Measurements for Multi-Modal X-ray Microscopy of Solar Cells. / Ossig, Christina; Nietzold, Tara; West, Bradley; Bertoni, Mariana; Falkenberg, Gerald; Schroer, Christian G.; Stuckelberger, Michael E.

In: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, No. 150, 20.08.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ossig, Christina ; Nietzold, Tara ; West, Bradley ; Bertoni, Mariana ; Falkenberg, Gerald ; Schroer, Christian G. ; Stuckelberger, Michael E. / X-ray Beam Induced Current Measurements for Multi-Modal X-ray Microscopy of Solar Cells. In: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE. 2019 ; No. 150.
@article{08288a93206249d78ac58fbb2fb95629,
title = "X-ray Beam Induced Current Measurements for Multi-Modal X-ray Microscopy of Solar Cells",
abstract = "X-ray beam induced current (XBIC) measurements allow mapping of the nanoscale performance of electronic devices such as solar cells. Ideally, XBIC is employed simultaneously with other techniques within a multi-modal X-ray microscopy approach. An example is given herein combining XBIC with X-ray fluorescence to enable point-by-point correlations of the electrical performance with chemical composition. For the highest signal-to-noise ratio in XBIC measurements, lock-in amplification plays a crucial role. By this approach, the X-ray beam is modulated by an optical chopper upstream of the sample. The modulated X-ray beam induced electrical signal is amplified and demodulated to the chopper frequency using a lock-in amplifier. By optimizing low-pass filter settings, modulation frequency, and amplification amplitudes, noise can efficiently be suppressed for the extraction of a clear XBIC signal. A similar setup can be used to measure the X-ray beam induced voltage (XBIV). Beyond standard XBIC/XBIV measurements, XBIC can be measured with bias light or bias voltage applied such that outdoor working conditions of solar cells can be reproduced during in-situ and operando measurements. Ultimately, the multi-modal and multi-dimensional evaluation of electronic devices at the nanoscale enables new insights into the complex dependencies between composition, structure, and performance, which is an important step towards solving the materials' paradigm.",
author = "Christina Ossig and Tara Nietzold and Bradley West and Mariana Bertoni and Gerald Falkenberg and Schroer, {Christian G.} and Stuckelberger, {Michael E.}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "20",
doi = "10.3791/60001",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Visualized Experiments",
issn = "1940-087X",
publisher = "MYJoVE Corporation",
number = "150",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - X-ray Beam Induced Current Measurements for Multi-Modal X-ray Microscopy of Solar Cells

AU - Ossig, Christina

AU - Nietzold, Tara

AU - West, Bradley

AU - Bertoni, Mariana

AU - Falkenberg, Gerald

AU - Schroer, Christian G.

AU - Stuckelberger, Michael E.

PY - 2019/8/20

Y1 - 2019/8/20

N2 - X-ray beam induced current (XBIC) measurements allow mapping of the nanoscale performance of electronic devices such as solar cells. Ideally, XBIC is employed simultaneously with other techniques within a multi-modal X-ray microscopy approach. An example is given herein combining XBIC with X-ray fluorescence to enable point-by-point correlations of the electrical performance with chemical composition. For the highest signal-to-noise ratio in XBIC measurements, lock-in amplification plays a crucial role. By this approach, the X-ray beam is modulated by an optical chopper upstream of the sample. The modulated X-ray beam induced electrical signal is amplified and demodulated to the chopper frequency using a lock-in amplifier. By optimizing low-pass filter settings, modulation frequency, and amplification amplitudes, noise can efficiently be suppressed for the extraction of a clear XBIC signal. A similar setup can be used to measure the X-ray beam induced voltage (XBIV). Beyond standard XBIC/XBIV measurements, XBIC can be measured with bias light or bias voltage applied such that outdoor working conditions of solar cells can be reproduced during in-situ and operando measurements. Ultimately, the multi-modal and multi-dimensional evaluation of electronic devices at the nanoscale enables new insights into the complex dependencies between composition, structure, and performance, which is an important step towards solving the materials' paradigm.

AB - X-ray beam induced current (XBIC) measurements allow mapping of the nanoscale performance of electronic devices such as solar cells. Ideally, XBIC is employed simultaneously with other techniques within a multi-modal X-ray microscopy approach. An example is given herein combining XBIC with X-ray fluorescence to enable point-by-point correlations of the electrical performance with chemical composition. For the highest signal-to-noise ratio in XBIC measurements, lock-in amplification plays a crucial role. By this approach, the X-ray beam is modulated by an optical chopper upstream of the sample. The modulated X-ray beam induced electrical signal is amplified and demodulated to the chopper frequency using a lock-in amplifier. By optimizing low-pass filter settings, modulation frequency, and amplification amplitudes, noise can efficiently be suppressed for the extraction of a clear XBIC signal. A similar setup can be used to measure the X-ray beam induced voltage (XBIV). Beyond standard XBIC/XBIV measurements, XBIC can be measured with bias light or bias voltage applied such that outdoor working conditions of solar cells can be reproduced during in-situ and operando measurements. Ultimately, the multi-modal and multi-dimensional evaluation of electronic devices at the nanoscale enables new insights into the complex dependencies between composition, structure, and performance, which is an important step towards solving the materials' paradigm.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85071969835&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85071969835&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3791/60001

DO - 10.3791/60001

M3 - Article

C2 - 31498310

AN - SCOPUS:85071969835

JO - Journal of Visualized Experiments

JF - Journal of Visualized Experiments

SN - 1940-087X

IS - 150

ER -