The vast literature concerning printed word identification either contradicts or provides ambiguous support for each of the central hypotheses of dual-process theory, the most widely accepted theory of printed word identification. In contrast, clear, positive support exists for an alternative subsymbolic approach that includes a central role for the process of phonologic coding. This subsymbolic account is developed around a covariant learning hypothesis, derived from a design principle common to current learning algorithms within the subsymbolic paradigm. Where this hypothesis applies, and it may apply broadly, it predicts a common empirical profile of development.
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