Women and globalization: A study of 180 countries, 1975-2000

Mark M. Gray, Miki Caul Kittilson, Wayne Sandholtz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

131 Scopus citations


How do rising levels of international interconnectedness affect social, economic, and political conditions for women? Research on gender and international relations frequently offers clear propositions hut seldom submits them to broad, quantitative testing. This article hegins to fill that gap. We advance the hypothesis that, on balance and over time, increasing cross-national exchange and communication lead to improvements in women's status and equality. Economic aspects of glohalization can bring new opportunities and resources to women. But equally important, globalization promotes the diffusion of ideas and norms of equality for women. In an analysis of 180 countries from 1975 to 2000, employing cross-sectional-time-series regression techniques, we examine the impact of several measures of globalixation on women's levels of life expectancy, literacy, and participation in the economy and parliamentary office. International trade, foreign direct investment, membership in the United Nations (UN) and World Bank, and ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). are associated with improved conditions for women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-333
Number of pages41
JournalInternational Organization
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Political Science and International Relations
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
  • Law


Dive into the research topics of 'Women and globalization: A study of 180 countries, 1975-2000'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this