With a Little Flak From My Friends: Development and Preliminary Validation of the Test of Negative Social Exchange (TENSE)

Linda S. Ruehlman, Paul Karoly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

119 Scopus citations

Abstract

While acknowledging the potential significance of negative interpersonal transactions for psychological functioning, researchers have only recently turned their attention to assessment. To date, investigators have relied on single-item measures or incompletely developed unidimensional scales. This article describes the construction and preliminary validation of the Test of Negative Social Exchange (TENSE) on the basis of 2 independent samples (N = 878). An exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 revealed 4 subscales: Hostility/Impatience, Insensitivity, Interference, and Ridicule. A 4-factor model was confirmed using LISREL analysis in Study 2. The TENSE subscales were found to possess good test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity. Scores on the TENSE predicted satisfaction with life, depression, and anxiety. Finally, evidence emerged concerning the relative independence of negative social exchange and social support.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-104
Number of pages8
JournalPsychological Assessment
Volume3
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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