White Men's Fears, White Women's Tears: Examining Gender Differences in Racial Affect Types

Lisa Spanierman, Jacquelyn C. Beard, Nathan R. Todd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This investigation extends research on White students' affective costs of racism. Consistent with previous research that identified distinct costs of racism (or racial affect) types, the authors used cluster analysis to examine unique patterns in White empathy, guilt, and fear among White undergraduate women (n = 227) and men (n = 175) from a large university in the Midwestern United States. Extending prior research and building on conceptual scholarship concerned with intersections of race and gender, the authors separated the sample by gender to determine whether different affective costs of racism types emerged for women and men. The authors found the same five cluster solution for both women and men in the present study, and these solutions were consistent with previous research conducted among combined samples of women and men. Findings suggested that women were significantly more likely than men to be in the most desirable, Antiracist type, compared to the least desirable, Insensitive and Afraid type. Additionally, the authors examined whether support for affirmation action differed by racial affect type for women and men. Partially supporting their hypothesis, the authors found that racial affect types with different levels of White empathy distinguished levels of support for affirmative action among White women. Among White men, the authors found that racial affect types with different levels of White fear explained differing levels of affirmative action support. Implications for future research and diversity education interventions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)174-186
Number of pages13
JournalSex Roles
Volume67
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Tears
Fear
gender-specific factors
anxiety
Racism
racism
affirmative action
empathy
Research
Costs and Cost Analysis
costs
Midwestern United States
Guilt
gender
guilt
cluster analysis
Cluster Analysis
Students
Education
university

Keywords

  • Affirmative action beliefs
  • Costs of racism to Whites
  • Racial affect
  • White men and White women
  • Whites' racial attitudes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Psychology
  • Gender Studies

Cite this

White Men's Fears, White Women's Tears : Examining Gender Differences in Racial Affect Types. / Spanierman, Lisa; Beard, Jacquelyn C.; Todd, Nathan R.

In: Sex Roles, Vol. 67, No. 3-4, 08.2012, p. 174-186.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Spanierman, Lisa ; Beard, Jacquelyn C. ; Todd, Nathan R. / White Men's Fears, White Women's Tears : Examining Gender Differences in Racial Affect Types. In: Sex Roles. 2012 ; Vol. 67, No. 3-4. pp. 174-186.
@article{bd5389509023491eb4fc3a55fef22d51,
title = "White Men's Fears, White Women's Tears: Examining Gender Differences in Racial Affect Types",
abstract = "This investigation extends research on White students' affective costs of racism. Consistent with previous research that identified distinct costs of racism (or racial affect) types, the authors used cluster analysis to examine unique patterns in White empathy, guilt, and fear among White undergraduate women (n = 227) and men (n = 175) from a large university in the Midwestern United States. Extending prior research and building on conceptual scholarship concerned with intersections of race and gender, the authors separated the sample by gender to determine whether different affective costs of racism types emerged for women and men. The authors found the same five cluster solution for both women and men in the present study, and these solutions were consistent with previous research conducted among combined samples of women and men. Findings suggested that women were significantly more likely than men to be in the most desirable, Antiracist type, compared to the least desirable, Insensitive and Afraid type. Additionally, the authors examined whether support for affirmation action differed by racial affect type for women and men. Partially supporting their hypothesis, the authors found that racial affect types with different levels of White empathy distinguished levels of support for affirmative action among White women. Among White men, the authors found that racial affect types with different levels of White fear explained differing levels of affirmative action support. Implications for future research and diversity education interventions are discussed.",
keywords = "Affirmative action beliefs, Costs of racism to Whites, Racial affect, White men and White women, Whites' racial attitudes",
author = "Lisa Spanierman and Beard, {Jacquelyn C.} and Todd, {Nathan R.}",
year = "2012",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1007/s11199-012-0162-2",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "67",
pages = "174--186",
journal = "Sex Roles: A Journal of Research",
issn = "0360-0025",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "3-4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - White Men's Fears, White Women's Tears

T2 - Examining Gender Differences in Racial Affect Types

AU - Spanierman, Lisa

AU - Beard, Jacquelyn C.

AU - Todd, Nathan R.

PY - 2012/8

Y1 - 2012/8

N2 - This investigation extends research on White students' affective costs of racism. Consistent with previous research that identified distinct costs of racism (or racial affect) types, the authors used cluster analysis to examine unique patterns in White empathy, guilt, and fear among White undergraduate women (n = 227) and men (n = 175) from a large university in the Midwestern United States. Extending prior research and building on conceptual scholarship concerned with intersections of race and gender, the authors separated the sample by gender to determine whether different affective costs of racism types emerged for women and men. The authors found the same five cluster solution for both women and men in the present study, and these solutions were consistent with previous research conducted among combined samples of women and men. Findings suggested that women were significantly more likely than men to be in the most desirable, Antiracist type, compared to the least desirable, Insensitive and Afraid type. Additionally, the authors examined whether support for affirmation action differed by racial affect type for women and men. Partially supporting their hypothesis, the authors found that racial affect types with different levels of White empathy distinguished levels of support for affirmative action among White women. Among White men, the authors found that racial affect types with different levels of White fear explained differing levels of affirmative action support. Implications for future research and diversity education interventions are discussed.

AB - This investigation extends research on White students' affective costs of racism. Consistent with previous research that identified distinct costs of racism (or racial affect) types, the authors used cluster analysis to examine unique patterns in White empathy, guilt, and fear among White undergraduate women (n = 227) and men (n = 175) from a large university in the Midwestern United States. Extending prior research and building on conceptual scholarship concerned with intersections of race and gender, the authors separated the sample by gender to determine whether different affective costs of racism types emerged for women and men. The authors found the same five cluster solution for both women and men in the present study, and these solutions were consistent with previous research conducted among combined samples of women and men. Findings suggested that women were significantly more likely than men to be in the most desirable, Antiracist type, compared to the least desirable, Insensitive and Afraid type. Additionally, the authors examined whether support for affirmation action differed by racial affect type for women and men. Partially supporting their hypothesis, the authors found that racial affect types with different levels of White empathy distinguished levels of support for affirmative action among White women. Among White men, the authors found that racial affect types with different levels of White fear explained differing levels of affirmative action support. Implications for future research and diversity education interventions are discussed.

KW - Affirmative action beliefs

KW - Costs of racism to Whites

KW - Racial affect

KW - White men and White women

KW - Whites' racial attitudes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84863088796&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84863088796&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s11199-012-0162-2

DO - 10.1007/s11199-012-0162-2

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84863088796

VL - 67

SP - 174

EP - 186

JO - Sex Roles: A Journal of Research

JF - Sex Roles: A Journal of Research

SN - 0360-0025

IS - 3-4

ER -