Which manuscript letters do primary grade children write legibly?

Stephen Graham, Naomi Weintraub, Virginia Berninger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Scopus citations


The authors examined the manuscript letter writing skills of 300 students in Grades 1-3. The participating children were asked to write the lowercase manuscript alphabet from memory. A relatively small number of letters (4-8) accounted for slightly more than half of all illegibilities at each grade level. Three letter characteristics (i.e., all parts, correction formation, and no rotations or reversals), grade, and alphabet fluency each made a significant contribution to the prediction of letter legibility after the effects of the other predictors were controlled. Letter legibility in turn made a significant contribution to the prediction of text legibility after all other predictors were controlled. Implications for instruction and evaluation are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)488-497
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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