Water loss by evaporation from China's South-North Water Transfer Project

Yu Jun Ma, Xiao Yan Li, Maxwell Wilson, Xiu Chen Wu, Andrew Smith, Jianguo Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

China's South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) is the longest and largest water transfer project in world history. However, the evaporative loss from SNWTP is still unclear. Here we estimated the water loss by evaporation from the open canal and reservoir of the Middle Route of SNWTP (MR-SNWTP), based on field experiments and three mathematical models (Penman equation, Penman-Monteith equation, and Priestley-Taylor equation). Results showed that the Penman equation was the most reliable model, thus it was used to evaluate the evaporative loss from MR-SNWTP. Under the original planned scenario, average annual evaporative loss from the open canal and accompanying reservoir of MR-SNWTP would be approximately 9.00 × 108 m3, of which 35.28% results directly from the construction of MR-SNWTP (3.34% of the planned total aqueduct diversion). However, during the first implement year of MR-SNWTP in 2015, the actual total water loss by evaporation was 6.43 × 108 m3, and the increased evaporative loss was 2.27 × 108 m3 due to the construction of MR-SNWTP, accounting for 8.57% of the actual total aqueduct diversion. This implies that the efficiency of MR-SNWTP from the perspective of water loss would be improved in the future with more water being transferred. Our results demonstrate that there is a general balance between water evaporation and vertical precipitation supplement of MR-SNWTP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)206-215
Number of pages10
JournalEcological Engineering
Volume95
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

Fingerprint

Evaporation
evaporation
Water
aqueduct
water
Canals
canal
Penman-Monteith equation
loss
project
water budget
History
Mathematical models
history
Experiments

Keywords

  • China's South-North Water Transfer Project
  • Evaporation
  • Penman equation
  • Penman-Monteith equation
  • Priestley-Taylor equation
  • Water loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation

Cite this

Water loss by evaporation from China's South-North Water Transfer Project. / Ma, Yu Jun; Li, Xiao Yan; Wilson, Maxwell; Wu, Xiu Chen; Smith, Andrew; Wu, Jianguo.

In: Ecological Engineering, Vol. 95, 01.10.2016, p. 206-215.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ma, Yu Jun ; Li, Xiao Yan ; Wilson, Maxwell ; Wu, Xiu Chen ; Smith, Andrew ; Wu, Jianguo. / Water loss by evaporation from China's South-North Water Transfer Project. In: Ecological Engineering. 2016 ; Vol. 95. pp. 206-215.
@article{4c27a935f1964de2bdd45bdc28e946c6,
title = "Water loss by evaporation from China's South-North Water Transfer Project",
abstract = "China's South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) is the longest and largest water transfer project in world history. However, the evaporative loss from SNWTP is still unclear. Here we estimated the water loss by evaporation from the open canal and reservoir of the Middle Route of SNWTP (MR-SNWTP), based on field experiments and three mathematical models (Penman equation, Penman-Monteith equation, and Priestley-Taylor equation). Results showed that the Penman equation was the most reliable model, thus it was used to evaluate the evaporative loss from MR-SNWTP. Under the original planned scenario, average annual evaporative loss from the open canal and accompanying reservoir of MR-SNWTP would be approximately 9.00 × 108 m3, of which 35.28{\%} results directly from the construction of MR-SNWTP (3.34{\%} of the planned total aqueduct diversion). However, during the first implement year of MR-SNWTP in 2015, the actual total water loss by evaporation was 6.43 × 108 m3, and the increased evaporative loss was 2.27 × 108 m3 due to the construction of MR-SNWTP, accounting for 8.57{\%} of the actual total aqueduct diversion. This implies that the efficiency of MR-SNWTP from the perspective of water loss would be improved in the future with more water being transferred. Our results demonstrate that there is a general balance between water evaporation and vertical precipitation supplement of MR-SNWTP.",
keywords = "China's South-North Water Transfer Project, Evaporation, Penman equation, Penman-Monteith equation, Priestley-Taylor equation, Water loss",
author = "Ma, {Yu Jun} and Li, {Xiao Yan} and Maxwell Wilson and Wu, {Xiu Chen} and Andrew Smith and Jianguo Wu",
year = "2016",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.086",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "95",
pages = "206--215",
journal = "Ecological Engineering",
issn = "0925-8574",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Water loss by evaporation from China's South-North Water Transfer Project

AU - Ma, Yu Jun

AU - Li, Xiao Yan

AU - Wilson, Maxwell

AU - Wu, Xiu Chen

AU - Smith, Andrew

AU - Wu, Jianguo

PY - 2016/10/1

Y1 - 2016/10/1

N2 - China's South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) is the longest and largest water transfer project in world history. However, the evaporative loss from SNWTP is still unclear. Here we estimated the water loss by evaporation from the open canal and reservoir of the Middle Route of SNWTP (MR-SNWTP), based on field experiments and three mathematical models (Penman equation, Penman-Monteith equation, and Priestley-Taylor equation). Results showed that the Penman equation was the most reliable model, thus it was used to evaluate the evaporative loss from MR-SNWTP. Under the original planned scenario, average annual evaporative loss from the open canal and accompanying reservoir of MR-SNWTP would be approximately 9.00 × 108 m3, of which 35.28% results directly from the construction of MR-SNWTP (3.34% of the planned total aqueduct diversion). However, during the first implement year of MR-SNWTP in 2015, the actual total water loss by evaporation was 6.43 × 108 m3, and the increased evaporative loss was 2.27 × 108 m3 due to the construction of MR-SNWTP, accounting for 8.57% of the actual total aqueduct diversion. This implies that the efficiency of MR-SNWTP from the perspective of water loss would be improved in the future with more water being transferred. Our results demonstrate that there is a general balance between water evaporation and vertical precipitation supplement of MR-SNWTP.

AB - China's South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) is the longest and largest water transfer project in world history. However, the evaporative loss from SNWTP is still unclear. Here we estimated the water loss by evaporation from the open canal and reservoir of the Middle Route of SNWTP (MR-SNWTP), based on field experiments and three mathematical models (Penman equation, Penman-Monteith equation, and Priestley-Taylor equation). Results showed that the Penman equation was the most reliable model, thus it was used to evaluate the evaporative loss from MR-SNWTP. Under the original planned scenario, average annual evaporative loss from the open canal and accompanying reservoir of MR-SNWTP would be approximately 9.00 × 108 m3, of which 35.28% results directly from the construction of MR-SNWTP (3.34% of the planned total aqueduct diversion). However, during the first implement year of MR-SNWTP in 2015, the actual total water loss by evaporation was 6.43 × 108 m3, and the increased evaporative loss was 2.27 × 108 m3 due to the construction of MR-SNWTP, accounting for 8.57% of the actual total aqueduct diversion. This implies that the efficiency of MR-SNWTP from the perspective of water loss would be improved in the future with more water being transferred. Our results demonstrate that there is a general balance between water evaporation and vertical precipitation supplement of MR-SNWTP.

KW - China's South-North Water Transfer Project

KW - Evaporation

KW - Penman equation

KW - Penman-Monteith equation

KW - Priestley-Taylor equation

KW - Water loss

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84976872206&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84976872206&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.086

DO - 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.086

M3 - Article

VL - 95

SP - 206

EP - 215

JO - Ecological Engineering

JF - Ecological Engineering

SN - 0925-8574

ER -