Several types of as-received and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) thermal simulated 100 mm wafers were used for warpage study under different annealing conditions. The results indicated that as-received wafers showed little increase in warpage up to 1000°C furnace temperature and 61.0 cm/min insertion rate. For the CMOS thermal simulation processed wafers, both the prior amount of oxygen precipitation, Δ[Oi], where Δ[Oi] is the decrease in interstitial oxygen concentration, and bulk microdefect morphology affected warpage. For Δ[Oi] less than ca. 26 ppma, wafers with predominantly octahedral precipitates without associated dislocations plus a low density of small plate-type and dot-like precipitates underwent much less warpage than wafers with predominantly large octahedral precipitates and precipitate-dislocation-complexes (PDCs). When the Δ[Oi] was higher than 26 ppma, the defects consisted of a high density of large octahedral-shaped precipitates and PDCs and thus warpage became inevitable.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry