Volatiles from the 1994 eruptions of Rabaul: Understanding large caldera systems

Kurt Roggensack, Stanley Williams, Stephen J. Schaefer, Roderic A. Parnell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The 1994 eruption of Rabaul, in Papua New Guinea, involved a small plinian eruption at Vulcan and a vulcanian eruption on the opposite side of the camera at Tavurvur. Vulcan's ash leachates indicate seawater interaction that is consistent with earlier observations of low sulfur dioxide emissions and the presence of ice crystals in the initial plinian eruption cloud. In contrast, Tavurvur ash leachates indicate no seawater interaction, and later sulfur dioxide emissions remained high despite low-level eruptive activity. Silicic melt inclusions indicate that the andesitic melt contained about 2 weight percent water and negligible carbon dioxide. Mafic melt inclusions in Tavurvur ash have water and carbon dioxide contents that vary systematically over the course of the eruption. The mafic melt inclusions suggest that a mafic dike intruded from below the silicic chamber and provide further evidence that mafic intrusions drive caldera unrest.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)490-493
Number of pages4
JournalScience
Volume273
Issue number5274
StatePublished - Jul 26 1996

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melt inclusion
caldera
plinian eruption
ash
volcanic eruption
sulfur dioxide
leachate
carbon dioxide
seawater
ice crystal
dike
melt
water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Roggensack, K., Williams, S., Schaefer, S. J., & Parnell, R. A. (1996). Volatiles from the 1994 eruptions of Rabaul: Understanding large caldera systems. Science, 273(5274), 490-493.

Volatiles from the 1994 eruptions of Rabaul : Understanding large caldera systems. / Roggensack, Kurt; Williams, Stanley; Schaefer, Stephen J.; Parnell, Roderic A.

In: Science, Vol. 273, No. 5274, 26.07.1996, p. 490-493.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Roggensack, K, Williams, S, Schaefer, SJ & Parnell, RA 1996, 'Volatiles from the 1994 eruptions of Rabaul: Understanding large caldera systems', Science, vol. 273, no. 5274, pp. 490-493.
Roggensack K, Williams S, Schaefer SJ, Parnell RA. Volatiles from the 1994 eruptions of Rabaul: Understanding large caldera systems. Science. 1996 Jul 26;273(5274):490-493.
Roggensack, Kurt ; Williams, Stanley ; Schaefer, Stephen J. ; Parnell, Roderic A. / Volatiles from the 1994 eruptions of Rabaul : Understanding large caldera systems. In: Science. 1996 ; Vol. 273, No. 5274. pp. 490-493.
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