Crystallization of anatectic melts in high-temperature metamorphic terrains releases volatile-rich magmas that can be transported into adjacent lithologies. This study addresses the variations in the oxygen, boron and hydrogen isotopic composition of aplite-pegmatite dikes that formed during the crystallization of anatectic melts in regional high-temperature metamorphism on the island of Naxos, Greece, and propagated upward into the overlying sequences of metamorphic schist. The transport distance of these dikes was increased through a significant horizontal component of travel that was imposed by contemporaneous low-angle extensional shearing. Laser fluorination oxygen isotope analyses of quartz, tourmaline, garnet, and biotite mineral separates from the aplite-pegmatite dikes show a progressive rise in δ18O values with increasing distance from the core. Oxygen isotope fractionations among quartz, tourmaline, and garnet show temperature variations from > 700°C down to ∼400°C. This range is considered to reflect isotopic fractionation beginning with crystallization at high temperatures in water-undersaturated conditions and then evolving through lower temperature crystallization and retrograde sub-solidus exchange. Two processes are examined for the cause of the progressive increase in δ18O values: (1) heterogeneous δ18O sources and (2) fluid-rock exchange between the aplite/pegmatite magmas and their host rock. Although the former process cannot be ruled out, there is as yet no evidence in the exposed sequences on Naxos for the presence of a suitable high δ18O magma source. In contrast, a tendency for the δ18O of quartz in the aplite/pegmatite dikes to approach that of the quartz in the metamorphic rock suggests that fluid-rock exchange with the host rock may potentially be an important process. Advection of fluid into the magma is examined based on Darcian fluid flow into an initially water-undersaturated buoyantly propagating aplitic dike magma. It is shown that such advective flow could only account for part of the 18O-enrichment, unless it were amplified by repeated injection of magma pulses, fluid recycling, and deformation-assisted post-crystallization exchange. The mechanism is, however, adequate to account for hydrogen isotope equilibration between dike and host rock. In contrast, variations in the δ11B values of tourmalines suggest that 11B/10B fractionation during crystallization and/or magma degassing was the major control of boron geochemistry rather than fluid-rock interaction and that the boron isotopic system was decoupled from that of oxygen.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology