Vitamin C Deficiency and Depletion in the United States: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1994

Jeffrey S. Hampl, Christopher A. Taylor, Carol Johnston

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

121 Scopus citations


Objectives. We sought to determine prevalence rates of vitamin C deficiency and depletion in the United States. Methods. We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess intake of dietary, supplemental, and serum vitamin C. Results. Mean intakes and serum levels of vitamin C were normal; however, vitamin C deficiency and depletion were common (occurring among 5%-17% and 13%-23% of respondents, respectively). Smokers, those who did not use supplements, and non-Hispanic Black males had elevated risks of vitamin C deficiency, while Mexican Americans had lower risks. Conclusions. Health professionals should recommend consumption of vegetables and fruits rich in vitamin C and should recommend supplementation for individuals at risk of vitamin C deficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)870-875
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of public health
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2004


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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