Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity

W. H. Farrand, James Bell, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, S. W. Squyres, W. M. Calvin, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, J. Soderblom, S. D. Thompson, W. A. Watters, A. S. Yen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Multispectral measurements in the visible and near infrared of rocks at Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's Pancam are described. The Pancam multispectral data show that the outcrops of the Burns formation consist of two main spectral units which in stretched 673, 535, 432 nm color composites appear buff- and purple-colored. These units are referred to as the HFS and LFS spectral units based on higher and lower values of 482 to 535 nm slope. Spectral characteristics are consistent with the LFS outcrop consisting of less oxidized, and the HFS outcrop consisting of more oxidized, iron-bearing minerals. The LFS surfaces are not as common and appear, primarily, at the distal ends of outcrop layers and on steep, more massive surfaces, locations that are subject to greater eolian erosion. Consequently, the HFS surfaces are interpreted as a weathering rind. Further inherent spectral differences between layer's and between different outcrop map units, both untouched and patches abraded by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool, are also described. Comparisons of the spectral parameters of the Meridiani outcrop with a set of laboratory reflectance measurements of Fe3+-bearing minerals show that the field of outcrop measurements plots near the fields of hematite, ferrihydrite, poorly crystalline goethite, and schwertmannite. Rind and fracture fill materials, observed intermittently at outcrop exposures, are intermediate in their spectral character between both the HFS and LFS spectral classes and other, less oxidized, surface materials (basaltic sands, spherules, and cobbles).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberE06S02
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research E: Planets
Volume112
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 20 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Mars exploration
Temazepam
outcrops
mars
Mars
near infrared
outcrop
Bearings (structural)
Rocks
rocks
Infrared radiation
rock
Minerals
Reflectometers
Weathering
Abrasion
Erosion
Sand
Iron
minerals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. / Farrand, W. H.; Bell, James; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B. L.; Knoll, A. H.; McLennan, S. M.; Squyres, S. W.; Calvin, W. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Morris, R. V.; Soderblom, J.; Thompson, S. D.; Watters, W. A.; Yen, A. S.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, Vol. 112, No. 6, E06S02, 20.06.2007.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Farrand, WH, Bell, J, Johnson, JR, Jolliff, BL, Knoll, AH, McLennan, SM, Squyres, SW, Calvin, WM, Grotzinger, JP, Morris, RV, Soderblom, J, Thompson, SD, Watters, WA & Yen, AS 2007, 'Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity', Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, vol. 112, no. 6, E06S02. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JE002773
Farrand, W. H. ; Bell, James ; Johnson, J. R. ; Jolliff, B. L. ; Knoll, A. H. ; McLennan, S. M. ; Squyres, S. W. ; Calvin, W. M. ; Grotzinger, J. P. ; Morris, R. V. ; Soderblom, J. ; Thompson, S. D. ; Watters, W. A. ; Yen, A. S. / Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. In: Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets. 2007 ; Vol. 112, No. 6.
@article{2d934ffaa72c4abeae41ce80fd746820,
title = "Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity",
abstract = "Multispectral measurements in the visible and near infrared of rocks at Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's Pancam are described. The Pancam multispectral data show that the outcrops of the Burns formation consist of two main spectral units which in stretched 673, 535, 432 nm color composites appear buff- and purple-colored. These units are referred to as the HFS and LFS spectral units based on higher and lower values of 482 to 535 nm slope. Spectral characteristics are consistent with the LFS outcrop consisting of less oxidized, and the HFS outcrop consisting of more oxidized, iron-bearing minerals. The LFS surfaces are not as common and appear, primarily, at the distal ends of outcrop layers and on steep, more massive surfaces, locations that are subject to greater eolian erosion. Consequently, the HFS surfaces are interpreted as a weathering rind. Further inherent spectral differences between layer's and between different outcrop map units, both untouched and patches abraded by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool, are also described. Comparisons of the spectral parameters of the Meridiani outcrop with a set of laboratory reflectance measurements of Fe3+-bearing minerals show that the field of outcrop measurements plots near the fields of hematite, ferrihydrite, poorly crystalline goethite, and schwertmannite. Rind and fracture fill materials, observed intermittently at outcrop exposures, are intermediate in their spectral character between both the HFS and LFS spectral classes and other, less oxidized, surface materials (basaltic sands, spherules, and cobbles).",
author = "Farrand, {W. H.} and James Bell and Johnson, {J. R.} and Jolliff, {B. L.} and Knoll, {A. H.} and McLennan, {S. M.} and Squyres, {S. W.} and Calvin, {W. M.} and Grotzinger, {J. P.} and Morris, {R. V.} and J. Soderblom and Thompson, {S. D.} and Watters, {W. A.} and Yen, {A. S.}",
year = "2007",
month = "6",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1029/2006JE002773",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "112",
journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
issn = "2169-897X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity

AU - Farrand, W. H.

AU - Bell, James

AU - Johnson, J. R.

AU - Jolliff, B. L.

AU - Knoll, A. H.

AU - McLennan, S. M.

AU - Squyres, S. W.

AU - Calvin, W. M.

AU - Grotzinger, J. P.

AU - Morris, R. V.

AU - Soderblom, J.

AU - Thompson, S. D.

AU - Watters, W. A.

AU - Yen, A. S.

PY - 2007/6/20

Y1 - 2007/6/20

N2 - Multispectral measurements in the visible and near infrared of rocks at Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's Pancam are described. The Pancam multispectral data show that the outcrops of the Burns formation consist of two main spectral units which in stretched 673, 535, 432 nm color composites appear buff- and purple-colored. These units are referred to as the HFS and LFS spectral units based on higher and lower values of 482 to 535 nm slope. Spectral characteristics are consistent with the LFS outcrop consisting of less oxidized, and the HFS outcrop consisting of more oxidized, iron-bearing minerals. The LFS surfaces are not as common and appear, primarily, at the distal ends of outcrop layers and on steep, more massive surfaces, locations that are subject to greater eolian erosion. Consequently, the HFS surfaces are interpreted as a weathering rind. Further inherent spectral differences between layer's and between different outcrop map units, both untouched and patches abraded by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool, are also described. Comparisons of the spectral parameters of the Meridiani outcrop with a set of laboratory reflectance measurements of Fe3+-bearing minerals show that the field of outcrop measurements plots near the fields of hematite, ferrihydrite, poorly crystalline goethite, and schwertmannite. Rind and fracture fill materials, observed intermittently at outcrop exposures, are intermediate in their spectral character between both the HFS and LFS spectral classes and other, less oxidized, surface materials (basaltic sands, spherules, and cobbles).

AB - Multispectral measurements in the visible and near infrared of rocks at Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's Pancam are described. The Pancam multispectral data show that the outcrops of the Burns formation consist of two main spectral units which in stretched 673, 535, 432 nm color composites appear buff- and purple-colored. These units are referred to as the HFS and LFS spectral units based on higher and lower values of 482 to 535 nm slope. Spectral characteristics are consistent with the LFS outcrop consisting of less oxidized, and the HFS outcrop consisting of more oxidized, iron-bearing minerals. The LFS surfaces are not as common and appear, primarily, at the distal ends of outcrop layers and on steep, more massive surfaces, locations that are subject to greater eolian erosion. Consequently, the HFS surfaces are interpreted as a weathering rind. Further inherent spectral differences between layer's and between different outcrop map units, both untouched and patches abraded by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool, are also described. Comparisons of the spectral parameters of the Meridiani outcrop with a set of laboratory reflectance measurements of Fe3+-bearing minerals show that the field of outcrop measurements plots near the fields of hematite, ferrihydrite, poorly crystalline goethite, and schwertmannite. Rind and fracture fill materials, observed intermittently at outcrop exposures, are intermediate in their spectral character between both the HFS and LFS spectral classes and other, less oxidized, surface materials (basaltic sands, spherules, and cobbles).

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34548317188&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34548317188&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1029/2006JE002773

DO - 10.1029/2006JE002773

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:34548317188

VL - 112

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

JF - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

SN - 2169-897X

IS - 6

M1 - E06S02

ER -