Virus infections in the nervous system

Orkide O. Koyuncu, Ian B. Hogue, Lynn W. Enquist

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

168 Scopus citations

Abstract

Virus infections usually begin in peripheral tissues and can invade the mammalian nervous system (NS), spreading into the peripheral (PNS) and more rarely the central (CNS) nervous systems. The CNS is protected from most virus infections by effective immune responses and multilayer barriers. However, some viruses enter the NS with high efficiency via the bloodstream or by directly infecting nerves that innervate peripheral tissues, resulting in debilitating direct and immune-mediated pathology. Most viruses in the NS are opportunistic or accidental pathogens, but a few, most notably the alpha herpesviruses and rabies virus, have evolved to enter the NS efficiently and exploit neuronal cell biology. Remarkably, the alpha herpesviruses can establish quiescent infections in the PNS, with rare but often fatal CNS pathology. Here we review how viruses gain access to and spread in the well-protected CNS, with particular emphasis on alpha herpesviruses, which establish and maintain persistent NS infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)379-393
Number of pages15
JournalCell Host and Microbe
Volume13
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 17 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology
  • Virology

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