BACKGROUND: Sleep variability and social jetlag are associated with adverse cardiometabolic outcomes via circadian disrup-tion. Variable eating patterns also lead to circadian disruption, but associations with cardiometabolic health are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Women (n=115, mean age: 33±12 years) completed a 1-week food record using the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool at baseline and 1 year. Timing of first and last eating occasions, nightly fasting duration, and %kcal consumed after 5 pm (%kcal 5 pm) and 8 pm (%kcal 8 pm) were estimated. Day-to-day eating variability was assessed from the SD of these variables. Eating jetlag was defined as weekday-weekend differences in these metrics. Multivariable-adjusted linear models examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of day-to-day variability and eating jetlag metrics with cardiometabolic risk. Greater jetlag in eating start time, nightly fasting duration, and %kcal 8 pm related to higher body mass index and waist circumference at baseline (P<0.05). In longitudinal analyses, a 10% increase in %kcal 8 pm SD predicted increased body mass index (β, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.23– 0.81) and waist circumference (β, 1.73; 95% CI, 0.58– 2.87); greater %kcal 8 pm weekday-weekend differences predicted higher body mass index (β, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07– 0.43). Every 30-minute increase in nightly fasting duration SD predicted increased diastolic blood pressure (β, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.40–1.50); an equivalent increase in nightly fasting duration weekday-weekend differences predicted higher systolic blood pressure (β, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.11–1.05) and diastolic blood pressure (β, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.10– 0.80). Per 10% increase in %kcal 5 pm SD, there were 2.98 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.04– 5.92) and 2.37mm Hg (95% CI, 0.19– 4.55) increases in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure; greater %kcal 5 pm weekday-weekend differences predicted increased systolic blood pressure (β, 1.83; 95% CI, 0.30– 3.36). For hemoglobin A1c, every 30-minute increase in eating start and end time SD and 10% increase in %kcal 5 pm SD predicted 0.09% (95% CI, 0.03– 0.15), 0.06% (95% CI, 0.001– 0.12), and 0.23% (95% CI, 0.07– 0.39) increases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Variable eating patterns predicted increased blood pressure and adiposity and worse glycemic control. Findings warrant confirmation in population-based cohorts and intervention studies.
- Cardiovascular disease prevention
- Cardiovascular disease risk factors
- Eating jetlag
- Eating pattern variability
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine