Variability in capsaicinoid content and Scoville heat ratings of commercially grown Jalapeño, Habanero and Bhut Jolokia peppers

Ken Sweat, Jennifer Broatch, Connie Borror, Kyle Hagan, Thomas Cahill

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    10 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The variability of capsaicinoid content of three common, commercially-available hot pepper varieties, namely Jalapeño, Habanero and Bhut Jolokia, was investigated. For each variety tested, ten peppers were acquired from each of ten different suppliers resulting in 100 peppers per variety that were individually analyzed. The results showed that different pepper varieties had different distribution types. The Habanero peppers showed a normal distribution; the Bhut Jolokia showed a skewed distribution and the Jalapeño peppers showed a very skewed distribution. The source of variability was also different; the Habaneros were very consistent within a given pepper supplier so most of the overall variation resulted from differences between suppliers. The Jalapeño peppers were the exact opposite with a very high degree of variability within a given supplier and relatively low variation between suppliers. A bootstrap statistical simulation was conducted on the data to suggest a minimum number of peppers to analyze to characterize the variation in a population. The simulations indicated that small sample sizes are effective at estimating the mean concentrations, but a sample size of ten or more is necessary to describe the population and capture the high-end tail of the distributions, which are the very hottest peppers.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)606-612
    Number of pages7
    JournalFood Chemistry
    Volume210
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

    Fingerprint

    Capsicum
    Normal distribution
    pepper
    Sample Size
    Hot Temperature
    heat
    Normal Distribution
    Population
    hot peppers
    tail
    sampling

    Keywords

    • ANOVA
    • Bhut Jolokia
    • Bootstrap
    • Capsaicin
    • Capsaicinoid
    • Dihydrocapsaicin
    • Habanero
    • Jalapeño
    • Market basket study
    • Variation

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Food Science
    • Analytical Chemistry

    Cite this

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    title = "Variability in capsaicinoid content and Scoville heat ratings of commercially grown Jalape{\~n}o, Habanero and Bhut Jolokia peppers",
    abstract = "The variability of capsaicinoid content of three common, commercially-available hot pepper varieties, namely Jalape{\~n}o, Habanero and Bhut Jolokia, was investigated. For each variety tested, ten peppers were acquired from each of ten different suppliers resulting in 100 peppers per variety that were individually analyzed. The results showed that different pepper varieties had different distribution types. The Habanero peppers showed a normal distribution; the Bhut Jolokia showed a skewed distribution and the Jalape{\~n}o peppers showed a very skewed distribution. The source of variability was also different; the Habaneros were very consistent within a given pepper supplier so most of the overall variation resulted from differences between suppliers. The Jalape{\~n}o peppers were the exact opposite with a very high degree of variability within a given supplier and relatively low variation between suppliers. A bootstrap statistical simulation was conducted on the data to suggest a minimum number of peppers to analyze to characterize the variation in a population. The simulations indicated that small sample sizes are effective at estimating the mean concentrations, but a sample size of ten or more is necessary to describe the population and capture the high-end tail of the distributions, which are the very hottest peppers.",
    keywords = "ANOVA, Bhut Jolokia, Bootstrap, Capsaicin, Capsaicinoid, Dihydrocapsaicin, Habanero, Jalape{\~n}o, Market basket study, Variation",
    author = "Ken Sweat and Jennifer Broatch and Connie Borror and Kyle Hagan and Thomas Cahill",
    year = "2016",
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    doi = "10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.135",
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    AU - Sweat, Ken

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    AU - Borror, Connie

    AU - Hagan, Kyle

    AU - Cahill, Thomas

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