Van der waals epitaxial growth of graphene on sapphire by chemical vapor deposition without a metal catalyst

Jeonghyun Hwang, Moonkyung Kim, Dorr Campbell, Hussain A. Alsalman, Joon Young Kwak, Shriram Shivaraman, Arthur R. Woll, Arunima K. Singh, Richard G. Hennig, Sandeep Gorantla, Mark H. Rümmeli, Michael G. Spencer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

147 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

van der Waals epitaxial growth of graphene on c-plane (0001) sapphire by CVD without a metal catalyst is presented. The effects of CH4 partial pressure, growth temperature, and H2/CH4 ratio were investigated and growth conditions optimized. The formation of monolayer graphene was shown by Raman spectroscopy, optical transmission, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), and low voltage transmission electron microscopy (LVTEM). Electrical analysis revealed that a room temperature Hall mobility above 2000 cm2/V·s was achieved, and the mobility and carrier type were correlated to growth conditions. Both GIXRD and LVTEM studies confirm a dominant crystal orientation (principally graphene [10-10] || sapphire [11-20]) for about 80-90% of the material concomitant with epitaxial growth. The initial phase of the nucleation and the lateral growth from the nucleation seeds were observed using atomic force microscopy. The initial nuclei density was ∼24 μm-2, and a lateral growth rate of ∼82 nm/min was determined. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the binding between graphene and sapphire is dominated by weak dispersion interactions and indicate that the epitaxial relation as observed by GIXRD is due to preferential binding of small molecules on sapphire during early stages of graphene formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-395
Number of pages11
JournalACS nano
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 22 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Graphite
Aluminum Oxide
Epitaxial growth
Sapphire
Graphene
Chemical vapor deposition
graphene
sapphire
Metals
vapor deposition
catalysts
Catalysts
metals
grazing incidence
X ray diffraction
Nucleation
Transmission electron microscopy
low voltage
Hall mobility
Electric potential

Keywords

  • CVD
  • epitaxy
  • graphene
  • Raman
  • sapphire
  • van der Waals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Hwang, J., Kim, M., Campbell, D., Alsalman, H. A., Kwak, J. Y., Shivaraman, S., ... Spencer, M. G. (2013). Van der waals epitaxial growth of graphene on sapphire by chemical vapor deposition without a metal catalyst. ACS nano, 7(1), 385-395. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn305486x

Van der waals epitaxial growth of graphene on sapphire by chemical vapor deposition without a metal catalyst. / Hwang, Jeonghyun; Kim, Moonkyung; Campbell, Dorr; Alsalman, Hussain A.; Kwak, Joon Young; Shivaraman, Shriram; Woll, Arthur R.; Singh, Arunima K.; Hennig, Richard G.; Gorantla, Sandeep; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Spencer, Michael G.

In: ACS nano, Vol. 7, No. 1, 22.01.2013, p. 385-395.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hwang, J, Kim, M, Campbell, D, Alsalman, HA, Kwak, JY, Shivaraman, S, Woll, AR, Singh, AK, Hennig, RG, Gorantla, S, Rümmeli, MH & Spencer, MG 2013, 'Van der waals epitaxial growth of graphene on sapphire by chemical vapor deposition without a metal catalyst', ACS nano, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 385-395. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn305486x
Hwang J, Kim M, Campbell D, Alsalman HA, Kwak JY, Shivaraman S et al. Van der waals epitaxial growth of graphene on sapphire by chemical vapor deposition without a metal catalyst. ACS nano. 2013 Jan 22;7(1):385-395. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn305486x
Hwang, Jeonghyun ; Kim, Moonkyung ; Campbell, Dorr ; Alsalman, Hussain A. ; Kwak, Joon Young ; Shivaraman, Shriram ; Woll, Arthur R. ; Singh, Arunima K. ; Hennig, Richard G. ; Gorantla, Sandeep ; Rümmeli, Mark H. ; Spencer, Michael G. / Van der waals epitaxial growth of graphene on sapphire by chemical vapor deposition without a metal catalyst. In: ACS nano. 2013 ; Vol. 7, No. 1. pp. 385-395.
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