Using the SPSS MIXED procedure to fit cross-sectional and longitudinal multilevel models

James L. Peugh, Craig K. Enders

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

288 Scopus citations


Beginning with Version 11, SPSS implemented the MIXED procedure, which is capable of performing many common hierarchical linear model analyses. The purpose of this article was to provide a tutorial for performing cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses using this popular software platform. In doing so, the authors borrowed heavily from Singer's overview of SAS PROC MIXED, duplicating her analyses using the SPSS MIXED procedure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)811-835
Number of pages25
JournalEducational and Psychological Measurement
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2005



  • Hierarchical linear modeling
  • Longitudinal analysis
  • Multilevel modeling
  • SPSS
  • Software application

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Applied Mathematics

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