This paper presents a simplified approach and user-oriented solutions to the homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) equations for determining the surface diffusivity using a batch reactor system. Once the surface diffusivity is known, this model could also be used to estimate the performance of activated carbon (AC) applications as a function of contact time. In addition, fixed-bed performance can be predicted using the user-oriented solutions to the HSDM for fixed beds. The step-by-step procedure for determining surface diffusion coefficients of an activated carbon adsorber, which was initially developed by Hand, Crittenden and Thacker in 1983 for a carbon dose where Cequilibrium/C0 = 0.5, is modified to allow calculations for different carbon dosages. This modification provides solutions to the HSDM equations for different activated carbon dosages. The solutions to the HSDM framework are provided as simplified algebraic equations suitable for quick and easy estimations of DS. The excel spread sheet is provided in the supplemental information and a detailed example is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1859-1866
Number of pages8
JournalWater Research
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 2009


  • Activated carbon
  • Adsorption
  • Homogeneous surface diffusion model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

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