Copper and parylene-n (Pa-n) are studied for ultralarge scale integration circuits because of their low electrical resistivity, resistance to electromigration and low dielectric constant, chemical inertness, and compatibility with current integrated circuit manufacturing, respectively. Copper diffusion observed at and above 300 °C in Pa-n correlates to an increase in the crystallinity of the a phase and subsequent transformation to the more open structure of β parylene. Titanium nitride (oxygen) [TiN(O)]/titanium (Ti) bilayers are successfully implemented as a diffusion barrier. TiN is proven to be a very good diffusion barrier up to 500 °C for copper due to its large negative heat of formation and hence its thermal stability. Incorporation of an intermediate titanium layer reduced the residual stress and thermal mismatch between Pa-n and TiN. Without the Ti layer thermal cracking of TiN occurred. The presence of the buffer layer had no detrimental effects on the overall resistivity. The effectiveness of the barrier is attributed to stuffing of the grain boundaries with oxygen and nitrogen. This results in the elimination of rapid diffusion paths. This work provides the foundation for future implementation of Cu/Pa-n for higher temperature microelectronics.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)