Unprecedented pressure increase in deep magma reservoir triggered by lava-dome collapse

B. Voight, A. T. Linde, I. S. Sacks, G. S. Mattioli, R. S J Sparks, D. Elsworth, D. Hidayat, P. E. Malin, E. Shalev, C. Widiwijayanti, S. R. Young, V. Bass, Amanda Clarke, P. Dunkley, W. Johnston, N. McWhorter, J. Neuberg, P. Williams

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Abstract

The collapse of the Soufrière Hills Volcano lava dome on Montserrat in July 2003 is the largest such event worldwide in the historical record. Here we report on borehole dilatometer data recording a remarkable and unprecedented rapid (∼600s) pressurisation of a magma chamber, triggered by this surface collapse. The chamber expansion is indicated by an expansive offset at the near dilatometer sites coupled with contraction at the far site. By analyzing the strain data and using added constraints from experimental petrology and long-term edifice deformation from GPS geodesy, we prefer a source centered at approximately 6 km depth below the crater for an oblate spheroid with overpressure increase of order 1 MPa and average radius ∼1 km. Pressurisation is attributed to growth of 1-3% of gas bubbles in supersaturated magma, triggered by the dynamics of surface unloading. Recent simulations demonstrate that pressure recovery from bubble growth can exceed initial pressure drop by nearly an order of magnitude.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL03312
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Volume33
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 16 2006

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lava dome
extensometers
lava
domes
magma chamber
magma
bubble
bubbles
chambers
pressure recovery
oblate spheroids
data recording
geodesy
petrology
overpressure
unloading
historical record
boreholes
pressure drop
craters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Voight, B., Linde, A. T., Sacks, I. S., Mattioli, G. S., Sparks, R. S. J., Elsworth, D., ... Williams, P. (2006). Unprecedented pressure increase in deep magma reservoir triggered by lava-dome collapse. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(3), [L03312]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024870

Unprecedented pressure increase in deep magma reservoir triggered by lava-dome collapse. / Voight, B.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Mattioli, G. S.; Sparks, R. S J; Elsworth, D.; Hidayat, D.; Malin, P. E.; Shalev, E.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Young, S. R.; Bass, V.; Clarke, Amanda; Dunkley, P.; Johnston, W.; McWhorter, N.; Neuberg, J.; Williams, P.

In: Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, No. 3, L03312, 16.02.2006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Voight, B, Linde, AT, Sacks, IS, Mattioli, GS, Sparks, RSJ, Elsworth, D, Hidayat, D, Malin, PE, Shalev, E, Widiwijayanti, C, Young, SR, Bass, V, Clarke, A, Dunkley, P, Johnston, W, McWhorter, N, Neuberg, J & Williams, P 2006, 'Unprecedented pressure increase in deep magma reservoir triggered by lava-dome collapse', Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33, no. 3, L03312. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024870
Voight B, Linde AT, Sacks IS, Mattioli GS, Sparks RSJ, Elsworth D et al. Unprecedented pressure increase in deep magma reservoir triggered by lava-dome collapse. Geophysical Research Letters. 2006 Feb 16;33(3). L03312. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024870
Voight, B. ; Linde, A. T. ; Sacks, I. S. ; Mattioli, G. S. ; Sparks, R. S J ; Elsworth, D. ; Hidayat, D. ; Malin, P. E. ; Shalev, E. ; Widiwijayanti, C. ; Young, S. R. ; Bass, V. ; Clarke, Amanda ; Dunkley, P. ; Johnston, W. ; McWhorter, N. ; Neuberg, J. ; Williams, P. / Unprecedented pressure increase in deep magma reservoir triggered by lava-dome collapse. In: Geophysical Research Letters. 2006 ; Vol. 33, No. 3.
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