Understanding protected area resilience: A multi-scale, social-ecological approach

Graeme S. Cumming, Craig R. Allen, Natalie C. Ban, Duan Biggs, Harry C. Biggs, David H M Cumming, Alta De Vos, Graham Epstein, Michel Etienne, Kristine Maciejewski, Raphaë L. Mathevet, Christine Moore, Mateja Nenadovic, Michael Schoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

83 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Protected areas (PAs) remain central to the conservation of biodiversity. Classical PAs were conceived as areas that would be set aside to maintain a natural state with minimal human influence. However, global environmental change and growing cross-scale anthropogenic influences mean that PAs can no longer be thought of as ecological islands that function independently of the broader social-ecological system in which they are located. For PAs to be resilient (and to contribute to broader social-ecological resilience), they must be able to adapt to changing social and ecological conditions over time in a way that supports the long-term persistence of populations, communities, and ecosystems of conservation concern. We extend Ostrom's social-ecological systems framework to consider the long-term persistence of PAs, as a form of land use embedded in social-ecological systems, with important crossscale feedbacks. Most notably, we highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on PAs that exist from the local to the global scale, contextualizing PAs within multi-scale socialecological functional landscapes. Such functional landscapes are integral to understand and manage individual PAs for long-term sustainability. We illustrate our conceptual contribution with three case studies that highlight cross-scale feedbacks and social-ecological interactions in the functioning of PAs and in relation to regional resilience. Our analysis suggests that while ecological, economic, and social processes are often directly relevant to PAs at finer scales, at broader scales, the dominant processes that shape and alter PA resilience are primarily social and economic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)299-319
Number of pages21
JournalEcological Applications
Volume25
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015

Fingerprint

ecological approach
protected area
persistence
set-aside
ecological economics
environmental change
sustainability
biodiversity

Keywords

  • Biosphere reserve
  • Conservation
  • Cross-scale
  • National park
  • Nature reserve
  • Protected areas
  • Resilience
  • Social-ecological system
  • Socioecological system
  • Spatial resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology

Cite this

Cumming, G. S., Allen, C. R., Ban, N. C., Biggs, D., Biggs, H. C., Cumming, D. H. M., ... Schoon, M. (2015). Understanding protected area resilience: A multi-scale, social-ecological approach. Ecological Applications, 25(2), 299-319.

Understanding protected area resilience : A multi-scale, social-ecological approach. / Cumming, Graeme S.; Allen, Craig R.; Ban, Natalie C.; Biggs, Duan; Biggs, Harry C.; Cumming, David H M; De Vos, Alta; Epstein, Graham; Etienne, Michel; Maciejewski, Kristine; Mathevet, Raphaë L.; Moore, Christine; Nenadovic, Mateja; Schoon, Michael.

In: Ecological Applications, Vol. 25, No. 2, 01.03.2015, p. 299-319.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cumming, GS, Allen, CR, Ban, NC, Biggs, D, Biggs, HC, Cumming, DHM, De Vos, A, Epstein, G, Etienne, M, Maciejewski, K, Mathevet, RL, Moore, C, Nenadovic, M & Schoon, M 2015, 'Understanding protected area resilience: A multi-scale, social-ecological approach', Ecological Applications, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 299-319.
Cumming GS, Allen CR, Ban NC, Biggs D, Biggs HC, Cumming DHM et al. Understanding protected area resilience: A multi-scale, social-ecological approach. Ecological Applications. 2015 Mar 1;25(2):299-319.
Cumming, Graeme S. ; Allen, Craig R. ; Ban, Natalie C. ; Biggs, Duan ; Biggs, Harry C. ; Cumming, David H M ; De Vos, Alta ; Epstein, Graham ; Etienne, Michel ; Maciejewski, Kristine ; Mathevet, Raphaë L. ; Moore, Christine ; Nenadovic, Mateja ; Schoon, Michael. / Understanding protected area resilience : A multi-scale, social-ecological approach. In: Ecological Applications. 2015 ; Vol. 25, No. 2. pp. 299-319.
@article{ad6efa0fa760407c928a9429258e3d99,
title = "Understanding protected area resilience: A multi-scale, social-ecological approach",
abstract = "Protected areas (PAs) remain central to the conservation of biodiversity. Classical PAs were conceived as areas that would be set aside to maintain a natural state with minimal human influence. However, global environmental change and growing cross-scale anthropogenic influences mean that PAs can no longer be thought of as ecological islands that function independently of the broader social-ecological system in which they are located. For PAs to be resilient (and to contribute to broader social-ecological resilience), they must be able to adapt to changing social and ecological conditions over time in a way that supports the long-term persistence of populations, communities, and ecosystems of conservation concern. We extend Ostrom's social-ecological systems framework to consider the long-term persistence of PAs, as a form of land use embedded in social-ecological systems, with important crossscale feedbacks. Most notably, we highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on PAs that exist from the local to the global scale, contextualizing PAs within multi-scale socialecological functional landscapes. Such functional landscapes are integral to understand and manage individual PAs for long-term sustainability. We illustrate our conceptual contribution with three case studies that highlight cross-scale feedbacks and social-ecological interactions in the functioning of PAs and in relation to regional resilience. Our analysis suggests that while ecological, economic, and social processes are often directly relevant to PAs at finer scales, at broader scales, the dominant processes that shape and alter PA resilience are primarily social and economic.",
keywords = "Biosphere reserve, Conservation, Cross-scale, National park, Nature reserve, Protected areas, Resilience, Social-ecological system, Socioecological system, Spatial resilience",
author = "Cumming, {Graeme S.} and Allen, {Craig R.} and Ban, {Natalie C.} and Duan Biggs and Biggs, {Harry C.} and Cumming, {David H M} and {De Vos}, Alta and Graham Epstein and Michel Etienne and Kristine Maciejewski and Mathevet, {Rapha{\"e} L.} and Christine Moore and Mateja Nenadovic and Michael Schoon",
year = "2015",
month = "3",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "25",
pages = "299--319",
journal = "Ecological Appplications",
issn = "1051-0761",
publisher = "Ecological Society of America",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Understanding protected area resilience

T2 - A multi-scale, social-ecological approach

AU - Cumming, Graeme S.

AU - Allen, Craig R.

AU - Ban, Natalie C.

AU - Biggs, Duan

AU - Biggs, Harry C.

AU - Cumming, David H M

AU - De Vos, Alta

AU - Epstein, Graham

AU - Etienne, Michel

AU - Maciejewski, Kristine

AU - Mathevet, Raphaë L.

AU - Moore, Christine

AU - Nenadovic, Mateja

AU - Schoon, Michael

PY - 2015/3/1

Y1 - 2015/3/1

N2 - Protected areas (PAs) remain central to the conservation of biodiversity. Classical PAs were conceived as areas that would be set aside to maintain a natural state with minimal human influence. However, global environmental change and growing cross-scale anthropogenic influences mean that PAs can no longer be thought of as ecological islands that function independently of the broader social-ecological system in which they are located. For PAs to be resilient (and to contribute to broader social-ecological resilience), they must be able to adapt to changing social and ecological conditions over time in a way that supports the long-term persistence of populations, communities, and ecosystems of conservation concern. We extend Ostrom's social-ecological systems framework to consider the long-term persistence of PAs, as a form of land use embedded in social-ecological systems, with important crossscale feedbacks. Most notably, we highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on PAs that exist from the local to the global scale, contextualizing PAs within multi-scale socialecological functional landscapes. Such functional landscapes are integral to understand and manage individual PAs for long-term sustainability. We illustrate our conceptual contribution with three case studies that highlight cross-scale feedbacks and social-ecological interactions in the functioning of PAs and in relation to regional resilience. Our analysis suggests that while ecological, economic, and social processes are often directly relevant to PAs at finer scales, at broader scales, the dominant processes that shape and alter PA resilience are primarily social and economic.

AB - Protected areas (PAs) remain central to the conservation of biodiversity. Classical PAs were conceived as areas that would be set aside to maintain a natural state with minimal human influence. However, global environmental change and growing cross-scale anthropogenic influences mean that PAs can no longer be thought of as ecological islands that function independently of the broader social-ecological system in which they are located. For PAs to be resilient (and to contribute to broader social-ecological resilience), they must be able to adapt to changing social and ecological conditions over time in a way that supports the long-term persistence of populations, communities, and ecosystems of conservation concern. We extend Ostrom's social-ecological systems framework to consider the long-term persistence of PAs, as a form of land use embedded in social-ecological systems, with important crossscale feedbacks. Most notably, we highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on PAs that exist from the local to the global scale, contextualizing PAs within multi-scale socialecological functional landscapes. Such functional landscapes are integral to understand and manage individual PAs for long-term sustainability. We illustrate our conceptual contribution with three case studies that highlight cross-scale feedbacks and social-ecological interactions in the functioning of PAs and in relation to regional resilience. Our analysis suggests that while ecological, economic, and social processes are often directly relevant to PAs at finer scales, at broader scales, the dominant processes that shape and alter PA resilience are primarily social and economic.

KW - Biosphere reserve

KW - Conservation

KW - Cross-scale

KW - National park

KW - Nature reserve

KW - Protected areas

KW - Resilience

KW - Social-ecological system

KW - Socioecological system

KW - Spatial resilience

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84964247846&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84964247846&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 26263656

AN - SCOPUS:84964247846

VL - 25

SP - 299

EP - 319

JO - Ecological Appplications

JF - Ecological Appplications

SN - 1051-0761

IS - 2

ER -