Tumor-host interactions in the gallbladder suppress distal angiogenesis and tumor growth: Involvement of transforming growth factor β1

Takeshi Gohongi, Dai Fukumura, Yves Boucher, Chae Ok Yun, Gerald A. Soff, Carolyn Compton, Takeshi Todoroki, Rakesh K. Jain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Angiogenesis inhibitors produced by a primary tumor can create a systemic anti-angiogenic environment and maintain metastatic tumor cells in a state of dormancy. We show here that the gallbladder microenvironment modulates the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, a multifunctional cytokine that functions as an endogenous anti-angiogenic and antitumor factor in a cranial window preparation. We found that a wide variety of human gallbladder tumors express TGF-β1 irrespective of histologic type. We implanted a gel impregnated with basic fibroblast growth factor or Mz-ChA-2 tumor in the cranial windows of mice without tumors or mice with subcutaneous or gallbladder tumors to study angiogenesis and tumor growth at a secondary site. Angiogenesis, leukocyte-endothelial interaction in vessels and tumor growth in the cranial window were substantially inhibited in mice with gallbladder tumors. The concentration of TGF-β1 in the plasma of mice with gallbladder tumors was 300% higher than that in the plasma of mice without tumors or with subcutaneous tumors. In contrast, there was no difference in the plasma levels of other anti- and pro-angiogenic factors. Treatment with neutralizing antibody against TGF-β1 reversed both angiogenesis suppression and inhibition of leukocyte rolling induced by gallbladder tumors. TGF-β1 also inhibited Mz-ChA-2 tumor cell proliferation. Our results indicate that the production of anti-angiogenesis/proliferation factors is regulated by tumor-host interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1203-1208
Number of pages6
JournalNature Medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 1999
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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