This paper presents the development and evaluation of a miniature, three-axis, fiber-optic force sensor. The sensor is manufactured using low-cost, high-resolution rapid prototyping techniques and is integrated with a catheter to enable the detection of force during MRI-guided cardiac ablation procedures. The working principle is based on reflective light-intensity modulation. A force sensitive structure (flexure) is employed to vary the distance and orientation of an integrated reflector when a force is applied at the catheter tip. In this way, the light is modulated accordingly and the force can be calculated. The sensor has a high sensitivity and an adequate linear response along all three orthogonal axes (F x, F y, and F z) and a working range of around 0.5 N. Low-noise, high-gain electronics provide a force resolution of less than 1 gm force. Experiments demonstrate the ability of the sensor to acquire accurate force readings in a dynamic environment. MRI-compatibility experiments are performed in a clinical 1.5-T MR scanner.
- fiber optic
- triaxial force sensor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Computer Science Applications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering