Abstract

Chemical oxidation is a promising approach for in situ or ex situ treatment of heavy, long-chain (C12 - C40) petroleum-hydrocarbon impacted soils. Aqueous chemical oxidation treatments (sodium percarbonate, hydrogen peroxide, sodium persulfate, chlorine dioxide, sodium permanganate, and ozone) using two oxidant concentrations were tested in batch tests on soils containing C12 - C40 total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations of 1.6 and 2.0% weight/weight (w/w) resulting in TPH reductions from 20 to 90%. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) chromatograms for hydrocarbons were obtained and presented as chain-length fractions. Sodium percarbonate and hydrogen peroxide achieved the highest TPH reduction. There was little difference between 1 and 10% weight/volume (w/v) for all oxidant doses on TPH removal. Soluble organics in the liquid supernatants after oxidation of the TPH-containing soils were characterized by TPH analysis and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. Benchmark Soil 1 (BM1) containing 1.6% w/w TPH was more susceptible to solubilization than Benchmark Soil 2 (BM2, containing 2.0% w/w TPH) according to TPH removal data and posttreatment supernatant quality. Some of the oxidants achieving the greater reduction in soil TPH resulted in higher aqueous phase organic content, based upon TPH measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy. Persulfate achieved intermediate TPH reduction in soil, but the separated aqueous phase had lower carbon content. This work showed chemical oxidation can transform and mobilize heavy hydrocarbons in soil and can produce more water-soluble organics. Chemical oxidation alone may achieve regulated TPH soil concentration, or it could also be used in conjunction with other technologies such as bioremediation or surfactant washing to further reduce TPH in soil.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number04016065
JournalJournal of Environmental Engineering (United States)
Volume142
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016

Fingerprint

Petroleum
petroleum hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbons
Crude oil
Soils
oxidation
Oxidation
soil
sodium
oxidant
Oxidants
Sodium
fluorescence spectroscopy
chemical
Fluorescence spectroscopy
hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen Peroxide
hydrocarbon
solubilization

Keywords

  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Oil
  • Percarbonate
  • Persulfate
  • Soil washing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Treatment of heavy, long-chain petroleum-hydrocarbon impacted soils using chemical oxidation. / Apul, Onur G.; Dahlen, Paul; Delgado, Anca; Sharif, Fariya; Westerhoff, Paul.

In: Journal of Environmental Engineering (United States), Vol. 142, No. 12, 04016065, 01.12.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Chemical oxidation is a promising approach for in situ or ex situ treatment of heavy, long-chain (C12 - C40) petroleum-hydrocarbon impacted soils. Aqueous chemical oxidation treatments (sodium percarbonate, hydrogen peroxide, sodium persulfate, chlorine dioxide, sodium permanganate, and ozone) using two oxidant concentrations were tested in batch tests on soils containing C12 - C40 total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations of 1.6 and 2.0{\%} weight/weight (w/w) resulting in TPH reductions from 20 to 90{\%}. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) chromatograms for hydrocarbons were obtained and presented as chain-length fractions. Sodium percarbonate and hydrogen peroxide achieved the highest TPH reduction. There was little difference between 1 and 10{\%} weight/volume (w/v) for all oxidant doses on TPH removal. Soluble organics in the liquid supernatants after oxidation of the TPH-containing soils were characterized by TPH analysis and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. Benchmark Soil 1 (BM1) containing 1.6{\%} w/w TPH was more susceptible to solubilization than Benchmark Soil 2 (BM2, containing 2.0{\%} w/w TPH) according to TPH removal data and posttreatment supernatant quality. Some of the oxidants achieving the greater reduction in soil TPH resulted in higher aqueous phase organic content, based upon TPH measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy. Persulfate achieved intermediate TPH reduction in soil, but the separated aqueous phase had lower carbon content. This work showed chemical oxidation can transform and mobilize heavy hydrocarbons in soil and can produce more water-soluble organics. Chemical oxidation alone may achieve regulated TPH soil concentration, or it could also be used in conjunction with other technologies such as bioremediation or surfactant washing to further reduce TPH in soil.",
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AU - Apul, Onur G.

AU - Dahlen, Paul

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AU - Sharif, Fariya

AU - Westerhoff, Paul

PY - 2016/12/1

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KW - Soil washing

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