An approximation to the Maxwell-Semiconductor Bloch equations is used to model transverse mode dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The time-evolution of the spatial profiles of the laser field and carrier density is solved by a finite-difference algorithm. The algorithm is fairly general; it can handle devices of any shape, which are either gain or index guided or both. Also there is no a priori assumption about the type or number of modes. The physical modeling includes the nonlinear carrier dependence of the optical gain and refractive index and dispersion effects on the gain and the refractive index are also included.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics