Trade-offs in ecosystem impacts from nanomaterial versus organic chemical ultraviolet filters in sunscreens

David Hanigan, Lisa Truong, Jared Schoepf, Takayuki Nosaka, Anjali Mulchandani, Robert L. Tanguay, Paul Westerhoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Both nanoparticulate (nZnO and nTiO2) and organic chemical ultraviolet (UV) filters are active ingredients in sunscreen and protect against skin cancer, but limited research exists on the environmental effects of sunscreen release into aquatic systems. To examine the trade-offs of incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) into sunscreens over the past two decades, we targeted endpoints sensitive to the potential risks of different UV filters: solar reactive oxygen production in water and disruption of zebrafish embryo development. First, we developed methodology to extract nanoparticles from sunscreens with organic solvents. Zebrafish embryos exposed to parts-per-million NPs used in sunscreens displayed limited toxicological effects; nZnO particles appeared to be slightly more toxic than nTiO2 at the highest concentrations. In contrast, seven organic UV filters did not affect zebrafish embryogenesis at or near aqueous solubility. Second, to simulate potent photo-initiated reactions upon release into water, we examined methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV light. nTiO2 from sunscreen caused 10 times faster MB loss than nZnO and approached the photocatalytic degradation rate of a commercial nTiO2 photocatalysts (P25). Organic UV filters did not cause measurable MB degradation. Finally, we estimated that between 1 and 10 ppm of sunscreen NPs in surface waters could produce similar steady state hydroxyl radical concentrations as naturally occurring fluvic acids under sunlight irradiation. Incorporation of NPs into sunscreen may increase environmental concentrations of reactive oxygen, albeit to a limited extent, which can influence transformation of dissolved substances and potentially affect ecosystem processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)281-290
Number of pages10
JournalWater Research
Volume139
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018

Fingerprint

Sun hoods
Organic chemicals
Nanostructured materials
Ecosystems
filter
ecosystem
Nanoparticles
degradation
embryo
oxygen
Degradation
hydroxyl radical
environmental effect
cancer
skin
irradiation
solubility
Oxygen
Active filters
chemical

Keywords

  • Aquatic
  • Cosmetics
  • Ecotoxicity
  • Nanotechnology
  • Sunscreen
  • Zebrafish

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

Cite this

Trade-offs in ecosystem impacts from nanomaterial versus organic chemical ultraviolet filters in sunscreens. / Hanigan, David; Truong, Lisa; Schoepf, Jared; Nosaka, Takayuki; Mulchandani, Anjali; Tanguay, Robert L.; Westerhoff, Paul.

In: Water Research, Vol. 139, 01.08.2018, p. 281-290.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hanigan, David ; Truong, Lisa ; Schoepf, Jared ; Nosaka, Takayuki ; Mulchandani, Anjali ; Tanguay, Robert L. ; Westerhoff, Paul. / Trade-offs in ecosystem impacts from nanomaterial versus organic chemical ultraviolet filters in sunscreens. In: Water Research. 2018 ; Vol. 139. pp. 281-290.
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