Abstract

To investigate the occurrence of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in waters throughout Arizona, 26 compounds (pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and artificial sweetener) were analyzed in samples from surface waters, drinking water treatment plants (WTPs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and a groundwater recharge site during September 2007 to July 2009. Samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). TrOCs were prevalent during this study, as they were found in 95% of the samples collected (n>100). The most frequently detected compounds in surface waters were oxybenzone, caffeine, and sucralose. The total concentration of TrOCs varied seasonally with the highest concentration detected during summer. For WTPs, the majority of TrOCs detected in surface water were also identified in WTP raw waters and sedimentation effluent. High TrOC concentrations were detected in raw wastewater, and certain compounds (e.g. oxybenzone, ibuprofen, DEET, etc.) exhibited an increasing trend during summer. WWTP processes were shown to remove 11 of 26 compounds with up to 98% efficiency. Sucralose and sulfamethoxazole were dominant compounds (>60%) in WWTP effluent. Pharmaceuticals were also present in the ground water system of the Phoenix water supply area (<5 ng/L). Overall, the top six compounds detected were a) by frequency: oxybenzone, caffeine, sucralose, DEET, sulfamethoxazole, and acetaminophen; and b) by concentration: oxybenzone, caffeine, sucralose, DEET, sulfamethoxazole, and dilantin. Results of this study demonstrate the occurrence of TrOCs in the Phoenix drinking water system. Other sources of TrOCs that might impact drinking water, such as lakes, WWTP recharging sites, and landfill sites, need to be investigated for overall water resource management in Arizona..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationACS Symposium Series
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
Pages81-117
Number of pages37
Volume1048
ISBN (Print)9780841224964
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2 2010

Publication series

NameACS Symposium Series
Volume1048
ISSN (Print)00976156
ISSN (Electronic)19475918

Fingerprint

trichlorosucrose
Organic compounds
Wastewater
DEET
Caffeine
Sulfamethoxazole
Wastewater treatment
Water treatment plants
Surface waters
Potable water
Drinking Water
Drug products
Groundwater
Effluents
Recharging (underground waters)
Sweetening Agents
Water
Ibuprofen
Liquid chromatography
Phenytoin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

Cite this

Chiu, C., & Westerhoff, P. (2010). Trace organics in arizona surface and wastewaters. In ACS Symposium Series (Vol. 1048, pp. 81-117). (ACS Symposium Series; Vol. 1048). American Chemical Society. https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2010-1048.ch004

Trace organics in arizona surface and wastewaters. / Chiu, C.; Westerhoff, Paul.

ACS Symposium Series. Vol. 1048 American Chemical Society, 2010. p. 81-117 (ACS Symposium Series; Vol. 1048).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Chiu, C & Westerhoff, P 2010, Trace organics in arizona surface and wastewaters. in ACS Symposium Series. vol. 1048, ACS Symposium Series, vol. 1048, American Chemical Society, pp. 81-117. https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2010-1048.ch004
Chiu C, Westerhoff P. Trace organics in arizona surface and wastewaters. In ACS Symposium Series. Vol. 1048. American Chemical Society. 2010. p. 81-117. (ACS Symposium Series). https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2010-1048.ch004
Chiu, C. ; Westerhoff, Paul. / Trace organics in arizona surface and wastewaters. ACS Symposium Series. Vol. 1048 American Chemical Society, 2010. pp. 81-117 (ACS Symposium Series).
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abstract = "To investigate the occurrence of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in waters throughout Arizona, 26 compounds (pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and artificial sweetener) were analyzed in samples from surface waters, drinking water treatment plants (WTPs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and a groundwater recharge site during September 2007 to July 2009. Samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). TrOCs were prevalent during this study, as they were found in 95{\%} of the samples collected (n>100). The most frequently detected compounds in surface waters were oxybenzone, caffeine, and sucralose. The total concentration of TrOCs varied seasonally with the highest concentration detected during summer. For WTPs, the majority of TrOCs detected in surface water were also identified in WTP raw waters and sedimentation effluent. High TrOC concentrations were detected in raw wastewater, and certain compounds (e.g. oxybenzone, ibuprofen, DEET, etc.) exhibited an increasing trend during summer. WWTP processes were shown to remove 11 of 26 compounds with up to 98{\%} efficiency. Sucralose and sulfamethoxazole were dominant compounds (>60{\%}) in WWTP effluent. Pharmaceuticals were also present in the ground water system of the Phoenix water supply area (<5 ng/L). Overall, the top six compounds detected were a) by frequency: oxybenzone, caffeine, sucralose, DEET, sulfamethoxazole, and acetaminophen; and b) by concentration: oxybenzone, caffeine, sucralose, DEET, sulfamethoxazole, and dilantin. Results of this study demonstrate the occurrence of TrOCs in the Phoenix drinking water system. Other sources of TrOCs that might impact drinking water, such as lakes, WWTP recharging sites, and landfill sites, need to be investigated for overall water resource management in Arizona..",
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