A revised phylogenetic classification for derelomine flower weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Derelomini Lacordaire) is proposed, based on a cladistic analysis of 115 outgroup and ingroup taxa and 155 primarily morphological characters. The single most-parsimonious cladogram (length = 271, consistency index = 65, retention index = 95) indicates that several genera must be excluded from the tribe, as they lack certain modifications of the mouthparts and a primary reproductive association with the inflorescences of palms. These include Araucarietus Kuschel, Eisingius Kuschel, and Planus Kuschel, new placements (now all Trypetidini); Euryscapoides Wibmer & O'Brien, new placement (Curculioninae incertae sedis); Neopsilorhinus Bovie, new placement (Erirhinidae: Erirhinini); and Pedetinus Faust, new placement (Eugnomini). Five subtribes are recognized within Derelomini. The oldest African and South American Derelomina have a carinate rostrum and lamellate dorsal scales. Grasidius Champion (previously Erirhinini) and Terires Champion (Storeini) are placed therein, new placements.Neoderelomus Hoffmann is nested within Derelomus Schoenherr, syn.n., and its only species is therefore renamed as D. piriformis (Hoffmann), comb.n. The predominantly Asian Acalyptina are reduced from tribal status, stat.n., to now be part of Derelomini, new placement. They are defined (inter alia) by truncate elytra. They also contain Eudela Pascoe and Eudelodes Zimmermann, new placements (previously Curculioninae incertae sedis). The New World Notolomina, subtr.n., are distinguished by bifurcate maxillary lacinial teeth and other mouthpart characters. Andranthobius mariahelenae (Bondar) (formerly Derelomus), comb.n., is added to this entity. Phyllotrogina, subtr.n., are a very diverse and mostly Neotropical lineage. They have two-segmented maxillary palps, a densely pubescent prosternum, and long macrosetae along the basal fifth of the posterior wing margin. Within the subtribe there are independent transitions to host plant associations with various dicots (Phyllotrox Schoenherr), Cyclanthaceae (e.g. Perelleschus Wibmer & O'Brien and Systenotelus Anderson & Gómez), and Araceae (Cyclanthura Franz). Their life history traits show related changes, including losses of the ability to pollinate, and more detrimental (herbivorous, seed-predating) larval developments (e.g. Cotithene Voss). Phyllotrox tatianae (Bondar) (formerly Derelomus), comb.n., is assigned to Phyllotrogina. Hypoleschus Fall is nested within Phyllotrox, syn.n., and thereby the latter now contains P. atratus (Fall), comb.n. The Central American palm-associated Androtrox Franz, gen.n., is proposed to accommodate A. megalops (Champion) (formerly Phyllotrox), comb.n., a species with large contiguous eyes and a set of mouthpart attributes convergently present in Andranthobius Kuschel (Notolomina) and Phyllotrox. The Neotropical Staminodeina, subtr.n., with a labial prementum with two triangular projections and a large anal lobe on the wing, probably represent a young clade of weevils specialized to oviposit into the ephemeral staminodes of Cyclanthaceae inflorescences. The apparent phylogenetic sequence of the subtribes is (Derelomina ((Acalyptina, Staminodeina) (Notolomina, Phyllotrogina))), with a Juano- rhinini-Trypetidini clade as the most immediate outgroup, followed by various curculionine lineages. The revised system thus improves the taxonomy of derelomine weevils, and clarifies our understanding of their roles in the evolution of several tropical plant lineages - palms and cyclanths in particular.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Insect Science