Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride-based blue and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been extensively investigated as potential replacements for current polar c-plane LEDs. High-power and low-efficiency-droop blue LEDs have been demonstrated on nonpolar and semipolar planes III-nitride due to the advantages of eliminated or reduced polarization-related electric field and homoepitaxial growth. Semipolar (2021) and (2021) LEDs have contributed to bridging “green gap” (low efficiency in green spectral region) by incorporating high indium compositions, reducing polarization effects, and suppressing defects. Other properties, such as low thermal droop, narrow spectral linewidth, small wavelength shift, and polarized emission, have also been reported for nonpolar and semipolar LEDs. In this paper we review the theoretical background, device performance, material properties, and physical mechanisms for nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride semiconductors and associated blue and green LEDs. The latest progress on topics including efficiency droop, thermal droop, green-gap, and three-dimensional nanostructures is detailed. Future challenges, potential solutions, and applications will also be covered.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics