Top-Down Estimates of NOx and CO Emissions From Washington, D.C.-Baltimore During the WINTER Campaign

O. E. Salmon, P. B. Shepson, X. Ren, H. He, D. L. Hall, R. R. Dickerson, B. H. Stirm, S. S. Brown, D. L. Fibiger, E. E. McDuffie, T. L. Campos, Kevin Gurney, J. A. Thornton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Airborne mass balance experiments were conducted around the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore area using research aircraft from Purdue University and the University of Maryland to quantify emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). The airborne mass balance experiments supported the Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign, an intensive airborne study of anthropogenic emissions along the Northeastern United States in February–March 2015, and the Fluxes of Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases in Maryland project which seeks to provide best estimates of anthropogenic emissions from the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore area. Top-down emission rates of NOx and CO estimated from the mass balance flights are compared with the Environmental Protection Agency's 2011 and 2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI-11 and NEI-14). Inventory and observation-derived NOx emission rates are consistent within the measurement uncertainty. Observed CO emission rates are a factor of 2 lower than reported by the NEI. The NEI's accuracy has been evaluated for decades by studies of anthropogenic emissions, yet despite continuous inventory updates, observation-inventory discrepancies persist. WINTER NOx/CO2 enhancement ratios are consistent with inventories, but WINTER CO/NOx and CO/CO2 enhancement ratios are lower than those reported by other urban summertime studies, suggesting a strong influence of CO seasonal trends and/or nationwide CO reductions. There is a need for reliable observation-based criterion pollutant emission rate measurements independent of the NEI. Such determinations could be supplied by the community's reporting of sector-specific criteria pollutant/CO2 enhancement ratios and subsequent multiplication with currently available and forthcoming high-resolution CO2 inventories.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7705-7724
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Volume123
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 27 2018

Fingerprint

District of Columbia
carbon monoxide
Carbon Monoxide
reactivity
estimates
mass balance
carbon dioxide
Research aircraft
Nitrogen Oxides
Environmental Protection Agency
contaminants
augmentation
Greenhouse gases
pollutants
research aircraft
atmospheric gas
Experiments
emission inventory
nitrogen oxides
Northeastern United States

Keywords

  • airborne mass balance
  • CO
  • NEI
  • NOx
  • urban emissions
  • WINTER

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Salmon, O. E., Shepson, P. B., Ren, X., He, H., Hall, D. L., Dickerson, R. R., ... Thornton, J. A. (2018). Top-Down Estimates of NOx and CO Emissions From Washington, D.C.-Baltimore During the WINTER Campaign. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(14), 7705-7724. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028539

Top-Down Estimates of NOx and CO Emissions From Washington, D.C.-Baltimore During the WINTER Campaign. / Salmon, O. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Ren, X.; He, H.; Hall, D. L.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stirm, B. H.; Brown, S. S.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Campos, T. L.; Gurney, Kevin; Thornton, J. A.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 123, No. 14, 27.07.2018, p. 7705-7724.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Salmon, OE, Shepson, PB, Ren, X, He, H, Hall, DL, Dickerson, RR, Stirm, BH, Brown, SS, Fibiger, DL, McDuffie, EE, Campos, TL, Gurney, K & Thornton, JA 2018, 'Top-Down Estimates of NOx and CO Emissions From Washington, D.C.-Baltimore During the WINTER Campaign', Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 123, no. 14, pp. 7705-7724. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028539
Salmon, O. E. ; Shepson, P. B. ; Ren, X. ; He, H. ; Hall, D. L. ; Dickerson, R. R. ; Stirm, B. H. ; Brown, S. S. ; Fibiger, D. L. ; McDuffie, E. E. ; Campos, T. L. ; Gurney, Kevin ; Thornton, J. A. / Top-Down Estimates of NOx and CO Emissions From Washington, D.C.-Baltimore During the WINTER Campaign. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 2018 ; Vol. 123, No. 14. pp. 7705-7724.
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