Three-dimensional-printed gas dynamic virtual nozzles for x-ray laser sample delivery

Garrett Nelson, Richard Kirian, Uwe Weierstall, Nadia Zatsepin, Tomáš Faragó, Tilo Baumbach, Fabian Wilde, Fabian B P Niesler, Benjamin Zimmer, Izumi Ishigami, Masahide Hikita, Saša Bajt, Syun Ru Yeh, Denis L. Rousseau, Henry N. Chapman, John Spence, Michael Heymann

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    22 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Reliable sample delivery is essential to biological imaging using X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs). Continuous injection using the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN) has proven valuable, particularly for time-resolved studies. However, many important aspects of GDVN functionality have yet to be thoroughly understood and/or refined due to fabrication limitations. We report the application of 2-photon polymerization as a form of high-resolution 3D printing to fabricate high-fidelity GDVNs with submicron resolution. This technique allows rapid prototyping of a wide range of different types of nozzles from standard CAD drawings and optimization of crucial dimensions for optimal performance. Three nozzles were tested with pure water to determine general nozzle performance and reproducibility, with nearly reproducible off-axis jetting being the result. X-ray tomography and index matching were successfully used to evaluate the interior nozzle structures and identify the cause of off-axis jetting. Subsequent refinements to fabrication resulted in straight jetting. A performance test of printed nozzles at an XFEL provided high quality femtosecond diffraction patterns.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)11515-11530
    Number of pages16
    JournalOptics Express
    Volume24
    Issue number11
    DOIs
    StatePublished - May 30 2016

    Fingerprint

    x ray lasers
    gas dynamics
    nozzles
    delivery
    free electron lasers
    rapid prototyping
    fabrication
    x rays
    performance tests
    computer aided design
    printing
    diffraction patterns
    polymerization
    tomography
    injection
    optimization
    causes
    high resolution
    photons
    water

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

    Cite this

    Three-dimensional-printed gas dynamic virtual nozzles for x-ray laser sample delivery. / Nelson, Garrett; Kirian, Richard; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia; Faragó, Tomáš; Baumbach, Tilo; Wilde, Fabian; Niesler, Fabian B P; Zimmer, Benjamin; Ishigami, Izumi; Hikita, Masahide; Bajt, Saša; Yeh, Syun Ru; Rousseau, Denis L.; Chapman, Henry N.; Spence, John; Heymann, Michael.

    In: Optics Express, Vol. 24, No. 11, 30.05.2016, p. 11515-11530.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Nelson, G, Kirian, R, Weierstall, U, Zatsepin, N, Faragó, T, Baumbach, T, Wilde, F, Niesler, FBP, Zimmer, B, Ishigami, I, Hikita, M, Bajt, S, Yeh, SR, Rousseau, DL, Chapman, HN, Spence, J & Heymann, M 2016, 'Three-dimensional-printed gas dynamic virtual nozzles for x-ray laser sample delivery' Optics Express, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 11515-11530. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.011515
    Nelson, Garrett ; Kirian, Richard ; Weierstall, Uwe ; Zatsepin, Nadia ; Faragó, Tomáš ; Baumbach, Tilo ; Wilde, Fabian ; Niesler, Fabian B P ; Zimmer, Benjamin ; Ishigami, Izumi ; Hikita, Masahide ; Bajt, Saša ; Yeh, Syun Ru ; Rousseau, Denis L. ; Chapman, Henry N. ; Spence, John ; Heymann, Michael. / Three-dimensional-printed gas dynamic virtual nozzles for x-ray laser sample delivery. In: Optics Express. 2016 ; Vol. 24, No. 11. pp. 11515-11530.
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