Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of training in sexual minority issues, professional identification, and gender on attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals, affirmative counseling self-efficacy, and beliefs about affirmative practice among mental health practitioners in the USA. Method: We used the Internet to recruit a nationwide sample of 443 heterosexual psychologists (n = 270), clinical social workers (n = 110), and marriage and family therapists (n = 63) residing in the USA. Results: When controlling for years of practice experience and age, results from structural equation modeling analysis showed that training was associated with more affirmative attitudes, higher levels of affirmative counseling self-efficacy, and more positive beliefs. Female therapists reported more affirmative attitudes and higher levels of affirmative counseling self-efficacy than male therapists. Professional identification did not predict any criterion variables, when controlling for years of practice experience and age. Conclusion: Findings suggest that it will be important for educational and training initiatives to consider the effect of gender role socialization on attitudes and affirmative counseling self-efficacy, especially among beginning male therapists.
- LGB-affirmative counseling self-efficacy
- LGB-affirmative psychotherapy
- attitudes toward LGB individuals
- lesbian, gay, and bisexual
- psychotherapy training
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Psychology