Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has a curative potential for many hematologic malignancies and blood diseases. However, the success of allo-HSCT is limited by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), an immunological syndrome that involves inflammation and tissue damage mediated by donor lymphocytes. Despite immune suppression, GVHD is highly incident even after allo-HSCT using human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors. Therefore, alternative and more effective therapies are needed to prevent or control GVHD while preserving the beneficial graft-versus-cancer (GVC) effects against residual disease. Among novel therapeutics for GVHD, oncolytic viruses such as myxoma virus (MYXV) are receiving increased attention due to their dual role in controlling GVHD while preserving or augmenting GVC. This review focuses on the molecular basis of GVHD, as well as state-of-the-art advances in developing novel therapies to prevent or control GVHD while minimizing impact on GVC. Recent literature regarding conventional and the emerging therapies are summarized, with special emphasis on virotherapy to prevent GVHD. Recent advances using preclinical models with oncolytic viruses such as MYXV to ameliorate the deleterious consequences of GVHD, while maintaining or improving the anti-cancer benefits of GVC will be reviewed.
- Hematopoietic cell transplant
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases