Over the past decade, ecologists and physiologists alike have acknowledged the importance of environmental heterogeneity. Meaningful predictions of the responses of organisms to climate will require an explicit understanding of how organismal behavior and physiology are affected by such heterogeneity. Furthermore, the responses of organisms themselves are quite heterogeneous: physiology and behavior vary over different time scales and across different life stages, and because physiological systems do not operate in isolation of one another, they need to be considered in a more integrated fashion. Here, we review case studies from our laboratories to highlight progress that has been made along these fronts and generalizations that might be made to other systems, particularly in the context of predicting responses to climate change.
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