The biolistic technology has had a tremendous impact on plant and microbial research and development. The experience to date indicates that it should also have important uses with animal applications. The in-chamber system should prove increasingly valuable for transfecting non-dividing cells, primary cells, and other difficult-to-transfect targets. The hand-held version is currently useful for in situ transfection of cells in skin, but has limited effectiveness for internal organ transfection. This limitation may be lessened with further improvements in gun design and microprojectile coating. For gene therapy the most promising applications of this technology appear to be for genetic immunization and protocols which elicit an anti-tumor response.
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