The Structure of Control and Influence in Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Comparison of Several Definitions and Measures

Terence J. Tracey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Scopus citations


A 3-dimensional model of therapeutic control was hypothesized and examined. Specifically the model posited that control indices can be adequately described by 3 independent dimensions: intrapersonal definitions versus interpersonal definitions, from definitions versus effect definitions, and behavior versus perceptions. Meetings of 26 clients with 1 of 14 therapists were audio recorded, and each participant was requested to fill out control questionnaires after a middle session of therapy. The audiotapes were rated with 5 different control-coding schemes, and the resulting sequential ratings were aggregated with 3 different methods, yielding 15 different behavioral-control indices. The correlation matrices of these 15 behavioral-control indices and 3 perceived-control indices were subjected to multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The results are supportive of the hypothesized model and the relative independence of behavioral and perception definitions of control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-278
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of counseling psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 1991


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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