The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge

Jan Schipper, Janice S. Chanson, Federica Chiozza, Neil A. Cox, Michael Hoffmann, Vineet Katariya, John Lamoreux, Ana S L Rodrigues, Simon N. Stuart, Helen J. Temple, Jonathan Baillie, Luigi Boitani, Thomas E. Lacher, Russell A. Mittermeier, Andrew T. Smith, Daniel Absolon, John M. Aguiar, Giovanni Amori, Noura Bakkour, Ricardo BaldiRichard J. Berridge, Jon Bielby, Patricia Ann Black, J. Julian Blanc, Thomas M. Brooks, James A. Burton, Thomas M. Butynski, Gianluca Catullo, Roselle Chapman, Zoe Cokeliss, Ben Collen, Jim Conroy, Justin G. Cooke, Gustavo A B Da Fonseca, Andrew E. Derocher, Holly T. Dublin, J. W. Duckworth, Louise Emmons, Richard H. Emslie, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Matt Foster, Sabrina Foster, David L. Garshelis, Cormack Gates, Mariano Gimenez-Dixon, Susana Gonzalez, Jose Fernando Gonzalez-Maya, Tatjana C. Good, Geoffrey Hammerson, Philip S. Hammond, David Happold, Meredith Happold, John Hare, Richard B. Harris, Clare E. Hawkins, Mandy Haywood, Lawrence R. Heaney, Simon Hedges, Kristofer M. Helgen, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Syed Ainul Hussain, Nobuo Ishii, Thomas A. Jefferson, Richard K B Jenkins, Charlotte H. Johnston, Mark Keith, Jonathan Kingdon, David H. Knox, Kit M. Kovacs, Penny Langhammer, Kristin Leus, Rebecca Lewison, Gabriela Lichtenstein, Lloyd F. Lowry, Zoe Macavoy, Georgina M. Mace, David P. Mallon, Monica Masi, Meghan W. McKnight, Rodrigo A. Medellín, Patricia Medici, Gus Mills, Patricia D. Moehlman, Sanjay Molur, Arturo Mora, Kristin Nowell, John F. Oates, Wanda Olech, William R L Oliver, Monik Oprea, Bruce D. Patterson, William F. Perrin, Beth Polidoro, Caroline Pollock, Abigail Powel, Yelizaveta Protas, Paul Racey, Jim Ragle, Pavithra Ramani, Galen Rathbun, Randall R. Reeves, Stephen B. Reilly, John E. Reynolds, Carlo Rondinini, Ruth Grace Rosell-Ambal, Monica Rulli, Anthony B. Rylands, Simona Savini, Cody J. Schank, Wes Sechrest, Caryn Self-Sullivan, Alan Shoemaker, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Naamal De Silva, David E. Smith, Chelmala Srinivasulu, Peter J. Stephenson, Nico Van Strien, Bibhab Kumar Talukdar, Barbara L. Taylor, Rob Timmins, Diego G. Tirira, Marcelo F. Tognelli, Katerina Tsytsulina, Liza M. Veiga, Jean Christophe Vié, Elizabeth A. Williamson, Sarah A. Wyatt, Yan Xie, Bruce E. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

841 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Knowledge of mammalian diversity is still surprisingly disparate, both regionally and taxonomically. Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of the conservation status and distribution of the world's mammals. Data, compiled by 1700+ experts, cover all 5487 species, including marine mammals. Global macroecological patterns are very different for land and marine species but suggest common mechanisms driving diversity and endemism across systems. Compared with land species, threat levels are higher among marine mammals, driven by different processes (accidental mortality and pollution, rather than habitat loss), and are spatially distinct (peaking in northern oceans, rather than in Southeast Asia). Marine mammals are also disproportionately poorly known. These data are made freely available to support further scientific developments and conservation action.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-230
Number of pages6
JournalScience
Volume322
Issue number5899
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 10 2008
Externally publishedYes

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Mammals
Southeastern Asia
Oceans and Seas
Ecosystem
Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Schipper, J., Chanson, J. S., Chiozza, F., Cox, N. A., Hoffmann, M., Katariya, V., ... Young, B. E. (2008). The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge. Science, 322(5899), 225-230. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1165115

The status of the world's land and marine mammals : diversity, threat, and knowledge. / Schipper, Jan; Chanson, Janice S.; Chiozza, Federica; Cox, Neil A.; Hoffmann, Michael; Katariya, Vineet; Lamoreux, John; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Stuart, Simon N.; Temple, Helen J.; Baillie, Jonathan; Boitani, Luigi; Lacher, Thomas E.; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Smith, Andrew T.; Absolon, Daniel; Aguiar, John M.; Amori, Giovanni; Bakkour, Noura; Baldi, Ricardo; Berridge, Richard J.; Bielby, Jon; Black, Patricia Ann; Blanc, J. Julian; Brooks, Thomas M.; Burton, James A.; Butynski, Thomas M.; Catullo, Gianluca; Chapman, Roselle; Cokeliss, Zoe; Collen, Ben; Conroy, Jim; Cooke, Justin G.; Da Fonseca, Gustavo A B; Derocher, Andrew E.; Dublin, Holly T.; Duckworth, J. W.; Emmons, Louise; Emslie, Richard H.; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Foster, Matt; Foster, Sabrina; Garshelis, David L.; Gates, Cormack; Gimenez-Dixon, Mariano; Gonzalez, Susana; Gonzalez-Maya, Jose Fernando; Good, Tatjana C.; Hammerson, Geoffrey; Hammond, Philip S.; Happold, David; Happold, Meredith; Hare, John; Harris, Richard B.; Hawkins, Clare E.; Haywood, Mandy; Heaney, Lawrence R.; Hedges, Simon; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hussain, Syed Ainul; Ishii, Nobuo; Jefferson, Thomas A.; Jenkins, Richard K B; Johnston, Charlotte H.; Keith, Mark; Kingdon, Jonathan; Knox, David H.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Langhammer, Penny; Leus, Kristin; Lewison, Rebecca; Lichtenstein, Gabriela; Lowry, Lloyd F.; Macavoy, Zoe; Mace, Georgina M.; Mallon, David P.; Masi, Monica; McKnight, Meghan W.; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Medici, Patricia; Mills, Gus; Moehlman, Patricia D.; Molur, Sanjay; Mora, Arturo; Nowell, Kristin; Oates, John F.; Olech, Wanda; Oliver, William R L; Oprea, Monik; Patterson, Bruce D.; Perrin, William F.; Polidoro, Beth; Pollock, Caroline; Powel, Abigail; Protas, Yelizaveta; Racey, Paul; Ragle, Jim; Ramani, Pavithra; Rathbun, Galen; Reeves, Randall R.; Reilly, Stephen B.; Reynolds, John E.; Rondinini, Carlo; Rosell-Ambal, Ruth Grace; Rulli, Monica; Rylands, Anthony B.; Savini, Simona; Schank, Cody J.; Sechrest, Wes; Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Shoemaker, Alan; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; De Silva, Naamal; Smith, David E.; Srinivasulu, Chelmala; Stephenson, Peter J.; Van Strien, Nico; Talukdar, Bibhab Kumar; Taylor, Barbara L.; Timmins, Rob; Tirira, Diego G.; Tognelli, Marcelo F.; Tsytsulina, Katerina; Veiga, Liza M.; Vié, Jean Christophe; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Wyatt, Sarah A.; Xie, Yan; Young, Bruce E.

In: Science, Vol. 322, No. 5899, 10.10.2008, p. 225-230.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schipper, J, Chanson, JS, Chiozza, F, Cox, NA, Hoffmann, M, Katariya, V, Lamoreux, J, Rodrigues, ASL, Stuart, SN, Temple, HJ, Baillie, J, Boitani, L, Lacher, TE, Mittermeier, RA, Smith, AT, Absolon, D, Aguiar, JM, Amori, G, Bakkour, N, Baldi, R, Berridge, RJ, Bielby, J, Black, PA, Blanc, JJ, Brooks, TM, Burton, JA, Butynski, TM, Catullo, G, Chapman, R, Cokeliss, Z, Collen, B, Conroy, J, Cooke, JG, Da Fonseca, GAB, Derocher, AE, Dublin, HT, Duckworth, JW, Emmons, L, Emslie, RH, Festa-Bianchet, M, Foster, M, Foster, S, Garshelis, DL, Gates, C, Gimenez-Dixon, M, Gonzalez, S, Gonzalez-Maya, JF, Good, TC, Hammerson, G, Hammond, PS, Happold, D, Happold, M, Hare, J, Harris, RB, Hawkins, CE, Haywood, M, Heaney, LR, Hedges, S, Helgen, KM, Hilton-Taylor, C, Hussain, SA, Ishii, N, Jefferson, TA, Jenkins, RKB, Johnston, CH, Keith, M, Kingdon, J, Knox, DH, Kovacs, KM, Langhammer, P, Leus, K, Lewison, R, Lichtenstein, G, Lowry, LF, Macavoy, Z, Mace, GM, Mallon, DP, Masi, M, McKnight, MW, Medellín, RA, Medici, P, Mills, G, Moehlman, PD, Molur, S, Mora, A, Nowell, K, Oates, JF, Olech, W, Oliver, WRL, Oprea, M, Patterson, BD, Perrin, WF, Polidoro, B, Pollock, C, Powel, A, Protas, Y, Racey, P, Ragle, J, Ramani, P, Rathbun, G, Reeves, RR, Reilly, SB, Reynolds, JE, Rondinini, C, Rosell-Ambal, RG, Rulli, M, Rylands, AB, Savini, S, Schank, CJ, Sechrest, W, Self-Sullivan, C, Shoemaker, A, Sillero-Zubiri, C, De Silva, N, Smith, DE, Srinivasulu, C, Stephenson, PJ, Van Strien, N, Talukdar, BK, Taylor, BL, Timmins, R, Tirira, DG, Tognelli, MF, Tsytsulina, K, Veiga, LM, Vié, JC, Williamson, EA, Wyatt, SA, Xie, Y & Young, BE 2008, 'The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge', Science, vol. 322, no. 5899, pp. 225-230. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1165115
Schipper J, Chanson JS, Chiozza F, Cox NA, Hoffmann M, Katariya V et al. The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge. Science. 2008 Oct 10;322(5899):225-230. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1165115
Schipper, Jan ; Chanson, Janice S. ; Chiozza, Federica ; Cox, Neil A. ; Hoffmann, Michael ; Katariya, Vineet ; Lamoreux, John ; Rodrigues, Ana S L ; Stuart, Simon N. ; Temple, Helen J. ; Baillie, Jonathan ; Boitani, Luigi ; Lacher, Thomas E. ; Mittermeier, Russell A. ; Smith, Andrew T. ; Absolon, Daniel ; Aguiar, John M. ; Amori, Giovanni ; Bakkour, Noura ; Baldi, Ricardo ; Berridge, Richard J. ; Bielby, Jon ; Black, Patricia Ann ; Blanc, J. Julian ; Brooks, Thomas M. ; Burton, James A. ; Butynski, Thomas M. ; Catullo, Gianluca ; Chapman, Roselle ; Cokeliss, Zoe ; Collen, Ben ; Conroy, Jim ; Cooke, Justin G. ; Da Fonseca, Gustavo A B ; Derocher, Andrew E. ; Dublin, Holly T. ; Duckworth, J. W. ; Emmons, Louise ; Emslie, Richard H. ; Festa-Bianchet, Marco ; Foster, Matt ; Foster, Sabrina ; Garshelis, David L. ; Gates, Cormack ; Gimenez-Dixon, Mariano ; Gonzalez, Susana ; Gonzalez-Maya, Jose Fernando ; Good, Tatjana C. ; Hammerson, Geoffrey ; Hammond, Philip S. ; Happold, David ; Happold, Meredith ; Hare, John ; Harris, Richard B. ; Hawkins, Clare E. ; Haywood, Mandy ; Heaney, Lawrence R. ; Hedges, Simon ; Helgen, Kristofer M. ; Hilton-Taylor, Craig ; Hussain, Syed Ainul ; Ishii, Nobuo ; Jefferson, Thomas A. ; Jenkins, Richard K B ; Johnston, Charlotte H. ; Keith, Mark ; Kingdon, Jonathan ; Knox, David H. ; Kovacs, Kit M. ; Langhammer, Penny ; Leus, Kristin ; Lewison, Rebecca ; Lichtenstein, Gabriela ; Lowry, Lloyd F. ; Macavoy, Zoe ; Mace, Georgina M. ; Mallon, David P. ; Masi, Monica ; McKnight, Meghan W. ; Medellín, Rodrigo A. ; Medici, Patricia ; Mills, Gus ; Moehlman, Patricia D. ; Molur, Sanjay ; Mora, Arturo ; Nowell, Kristin ; Oates, John F. ; Olech, Wanda ; Oliver, William R L ; Oprea, Monik ; Patterson, Bruce D. ; Perrin, William F. ; Polidoro, Beth ; Pollock, Caroline ; Powel, Abigail ; Protas, Yelizaveta ; Racey, Paul ; Ragle, Jim ; Ramani, Pavithra ; Rathbun, Galen ; Reeves, Randall R. ; Reilly, Stephen B. ; Reynolds, John E. ; Rondinini, Carlo ; Rosell-Ambal, Ruth Grace ; Rulli, Monica ; Rylands, Anthony B. ; Savini, Simona ; Schank, Cody J. ; Sechrest, Wes ; Self-Sullivan, Caryn ; Shoemaker, Alan ; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio ; De Silva, Naamal ; Smith, David E. ; Srinivasulu, Chelmala ; Stephenson, Peter J. ; Van Strien, Nico ; Talukdar, Bibhab Kumar ; Taylor, Barbara L. ; Timmins, Rob ; Tirira, Diego G. ; Tognelli, Marcelo F. ; Tsytsulina, Katerina ; Veiga, Liza M. ; Vié, Jean Christophe ; Williamson, Elizabeth A. ; Wyatt, Sarah A. ; Xie, Yan ; Young, Bruce E. / The status of the world's land and marine mammals : diversity, threat, and knowledge. In: Science. 2008 ; Vol. 322, No. 5899. pp. 225-230.
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abstract = "Knowledge of mammalian diversity is still surprisingly disparate, both regionally and taxonomically. Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of the conservation status and distribution of the world's mammals. Data, compiled by 1700+ experts, cover all 5487 species, including marine mammals. Global macroecological patterns are very different for land and marine species but suggest common mechanisms driving diversity and endemism across systems. Compared with land species, threat levels are higher among marine mammals, driven by different processes (accidental mortality and pollution, rather than habitat loss), and are spatially distinct (peaking in northern oceans, rather than in Southeast Asia). Marine mammals are also disproportionately poorly known. These data are made freely available to support further scientific developments and conservation action.",
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T1 - The status of the world's land and marine mammals

T2 - diversity, threat, and knowledge

AU - Schipper, Jan

AU - Chanson, Janice S.

AU - Chiozza, Federica

AU - Cox, Neil A.

AU - Hoffmann, Michael

AU - Katariya, Vineet

AU - Lamoreux, John

AU - Rodrigues, Ana S L

AU - Stuart, Simon N.

AU - Temple, Helen J.

AU - Baillie, Jonathan

AU - Boitani, Luigi

AU - Lacher, Thomas E.

AU - Mittermeier, Russell A.

AU - Smith, Andrew T.

AU - Absolon, Daniel

AU - Aguiar, John M.

AU - Amori, Giovanni

AU - Bakkour, Noura

AU - Baldi, Ricardo

AU - Berridge, Richard J.

AU - Bielby, Jon

AU - Black, Patricia Ann

AU - Blanc, J. Julian

AU - Brooks, Thomas M.

AU - Burton, James A.

AU - Butynski, Thomas M.

AU - Catullo, Gianluca

AU - Chapman, Roselle

AU - Cokeliss, Zoe

AU - Collen, Ben

AU - Conroy, Jim

AU - Cooke, Justin G.

AU - Da Fonseca, Gustavo A B

AU - Derocher, Andrew E.

AU - Dublin, Holly T.

AU - Duckworth, J. W.

AU - Emmons, Louise

AU - Emslie, Richard H.

AU - Festa-Bianchet, Marco

AU - Foster, Matt

AU - Foster, Sabrina

AU - Garshelis, David L.

AU - Gates, Cormack

AU - Gimenez-Dixon, Mariano

AU - Gonzalez, Susana

AU - Gonzalez-Maya, Jose Fernando

AU - Good, Tatjana C.

AU - Hammerson, Geoffrey

AU - Hammond, Philip S.

AU - Happold, David

AU - Happold, Meredith

AU - Hare, John

AU - Harris, Richard B.

AU - Hawkins, Clare E.

AU - Haywood, Mandy

AU - Heaney, Lawrence R.

AU - Hedges, Simon

AU - Helgen, Kristofer M.

AU - Hilton-Taylor, Craig

AU - Hussain, Syed Ainul

AU - Ishii, Nobuo

AU - Jefferson, Thomas A.

AU - Jenkins, Richard K B

AU - Johnston, Charlotte H.

AU - Keith, Mark

AU - Kingdon, Jonathan

AU - Knox, David H.

AU - Kovacs, Kit M.

AU - Langhammer, Penny

AU - Leus, Kristin

AU - Lewison, Rebecca

AU - Lichtenstein, Gabriela

AU - Lowry, Lloyd F.

AU - Macavoy, Zoe

AU - Mace, Georgina M.

AU - Mallon, David P.

AU - Masi, Monica

AU - McKnight, Meghan W.

AU - Medellín, Rodrigo A.

AU - Medici, Patricia

AU - Mills, Gus

AU - Moehlman, Patricia D.

AU - Molur, Sanjay

AU - Mora, Arturo

AU - Nowell, Kristin

AU - Oates, John F.

AU - Olech, Wanda

AU - Oliver, William R L

AU - Oprea, Monik

AU - Patterson, Bruce D.

AU - Perrin, William F.

AU - Polidoro, Beth

AU - Pollock, Caroline

AU - Powel, Abigail

AU - Protas, Yelizaveta

AU - Racey, Paul

AU - Ragle, Jim

AU - Ramani, Pavithra

AU - Rathbun, Galen

AU - Reeves, Randall R.

AU - Reilly, Stephen B.

AU - Reynolds, John E.

AU - Rondinini, Carlo

AU - Rosell-Ambal, Ruth Grace

AU - Rulli, Monica

AU - Rylands, Anthony B.

AU - Savini, Simona

AU - Schank, Cody J.

AU - Sechrest, Wes

AU - Self-Sullivan, Caryn

AU - Shoemaker, Alan

AU - Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

AU - De Silva, Naamal

AU - Smith, David E.

AU - Srinivasulu, Chelmala

AU - Stephenson, Peter J.

AU - Van Strien, Nico

AU - Talukdar, Bibhab Kumar

AU - Taylor, Barbara L.

AU - Timmins, Rob

AU - Tirira, Diego G.

AU - Tognelli, Marcelo F.

AU - Tsytsulina, Katerina

AU - Veiga, Liza M.

AU - Vié, Jean Christophe

AU - Williamson, Elizabeth A.

AU - Wyatt, Sarah A.

AU - Xie, Yan

AU - Young, Bruce E.

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AB - Knowledge of mammalian diversity is still surprisingly disparate, both regionally and taxonomically. Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of the conservation status and distribution of the world's mammals. Data, compiled by 1700+ experts, cover all 5487 species, including marine mammals. Global macroecological patterns are very different for land and marine species but suggest common mechanisms driving diversity and endemism across systems. Compared with land species, threat levels are higher among marine mammals, driven by different processes (accidental mortality and pollution, rather than habitat loss), and are spatially distinct (peaking in northern oceans, rather than in Southeast Asia). Marine mammals are also disproportionately poorly known. These data are made freely available to support further scientific developments and conservation action.

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