The role of T cells in protection by an inactivated infectious bursal disease virus vaccine

Silke Rautenschlein, H. Y. Yeh, J. M. Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Scopus citations

Abstract

The current belief is that the humoral immune response plays the principal role in defense against virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In this study we used a model, in which chickens were compromised in functional T cells by neonatal thymectomy and Cyclosporin A (TxCsA) treatment, to demonstrate the role of T cells in protective immunity against IBDV. We demonstrated that T cells were necessary to achieve full protection against virulent IBDV. When T cell compromised TxCsA-treated chickens were vaccinated with an inactivated IBDV (iIBDV) vaccine, 91% were not protected against IBDV challenge in comparison to T cell-intact chickens, which had a protection rate of 91%. The iIBDV vaccine induced virus neutralizing (VN) and ELISA antibodies, respectively, in 65 and 5% of TxCsA-treated, and in 100 and 58% of T cell-intact birds. These observations provide evidence that the stimulation of T helper cells is needed for the production of protective antibody levels in iIBDV-vaccinated chickens. Passive administration of VN anti-IBDV antibodies inducing a circulating antibody level of log28 in chickens revealed that the levels of antibodies that protected T cell-intact chickens against virulent IBDV challenge were not protective for TxCsA chickens. These results indicated that antibody alone was not adequate in inducing protection against IBDV in chickens and that T cell-involvement was critical for protection. We propose that the inability of iIBDV to protect TxCsA chickens was due to compromised T cell immunity, functional T helper cells and most likely also cytotoxic T cells are needed in iIBDV vaccine protection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)159-167
Number of pages9
JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Volume89
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 28 2002

Keywords

  • Chicken
  • IBDV
  • T cells
  • Vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • veterinary(all)

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