The rise of the Tao-hsüeh confucian fellowship in Southern Sung

Hoyt Tillman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

In the wake of the Jurchen conquest of the Northern Sung (960-1127) in 1127, Chinese literati lived in a politically divided and culturally dislocated world. The loss of the cultural heartland of North China and the failure of many scholar-officials (shih-ta-fu) to remain loyal to the dynasty raised doubts about the state of literati customs and Confucian values. Responding to this political and cultural crisis, Confucian intellectuals defended their literary culture and Tao (Way) in the belief that regeneration of Confucian values would empower them to restore order and expel the alien conquerors. As Hu Hung (1106-61) observed about foreign invasions, "When the Central Plain (Chung-yüan) was without the Tao of the Central Plain, the barbarians entered; when it restored the Tao of the Central Plain, the barbarians returned to their territory." Hu Yüan (993-1057), the first major Sung Confucian thinker, had reportedly distinguished three levels of what was meant by the Tao: t’i (essence or substance of all things); wen (literary and cultural expression, including the Classics, histories, and belles-lettres); and yung (function in governance). These three levels provide modes for analyzing Confucian discourse: what in the West would be called speculative philosophy (Chinese reasoning about a nonempirical level of primary principles), cultural values, and comment on policies. Debates took place among scholars about whose interpretation of the Tao was correct and what reconstruction of the tradition should serve as the standard for building a Confucian society.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Cambridge History of China Volume 5: Sung China, 960-1279 AD, Part 2
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages727-790
Number of pages64
ISBN (Print)9781139193061, 9780521243308
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Fingerprint

Fellowship
Confucian
Tao
Rise
Barbarians
Literati
Dynasty
Belles-lettres
Governance
Invasion
Regeneration
Speculative philosophy
Conquest
Cultural Values
China
Literary Culture
Thinkers
Essence
Conquerors
Discourse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities(all)

Cite this

Tillman, H. (2015). The rise of the Tao-hsüeh confucian fellowship in Southern Sung. In The Cambridge History of China Volume 5: Sung China, 960-1279 AD, Part 2 (pp. 727-790). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139193061.012

The rise of the Tao-hsüeh confucian fellowship in Southern Sung. / Tillman, Hoyt.

The Cambridge History of China Volume 5: Sung China, 960-1279 AD, Part 2. Cambridge University Press, 2015. p. 727-790.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Tillman, H 2015, The rise of the Tao-hsüeh confucian fellowship in Southern Sung. in The Cambridge History of China Volume 5: Sung China, 960-1279 AD, Part 2. Cambridge University Press, pp. 727-790. https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139193061.012
Tillman H. The rise of the Tao-hsüeh confucian fellowship in Southern Sung. In The Cambridge History of China Volume 5: Sung China, 960-1279 AD, Part 2. Cambridge University Press. 2015. p. 727-790 https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139193061.012
Tillman, Hoyt. / The rise of the Tao-hsüeh confucian fellowship in Southern Sung. The Cambridge History of China Volume 5: Sung China, 960-1279 AD, Part 2. Cambridge University Press, 2015. pp. 727-790
@inbook{173f4f0606274580abf8b95f19f28999,
title = "The rise of the Tao-hs{\"u}eh confucian fellowship in Southern Sung",
abstract = "In the wake of the Jurchen conquest of the Northern Sung (960-1127) in 1127, Chinese literati lived in a politically divided and culturally dislocated world. The loss of the cultural heartland of North China and the failure of many scholar-officials (shih-ta-fu) to remain loyal to the dynasty raised doubts about the state of literati customs and Confucian values. Responding to this political and cultural crisis, Confucian intellectuals defended their literary culture and Tao (Way) in the belief that regeneration of Confucian values would empower them to restore order and expel the alien conquerors. As Hu Hung (1106-61) observed about foreign invasions, {"}When the Central Plain (Chung-y{\"u}an) was without the Tao of the Central Plain, the barbarians entered; when it restored the Tao of the Central Plain, the barbarians returned to their territory.{"} Hu Y{\"u}an (993-1057), the first major Sung Confucian thinker, had reportedly distinguished three levels of what was meant by the Tao: t’i (essence or substance of all things); wen (literary and cultural expression, including the Classics, histories, and belles-lettres); and yung (function in governance). These three levels provide modes for analyzing Confucian discourse: what in the West would be called speculative philosophy (Chinese reasoning about a nonempirical level of primary principles), cultural values, and comment on policies. Debates took place among scholars about whose interpretation of the Tao was correct and what reconstruction of the tradition should serve as the standard for building a Confucian society.",
author = "Hoyt Tillman",
year = "2015",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1017/CHO9781139193061.012",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9781139193061",
pages = "727--790",
booktitle = "The Cambridge History of China Volume 5: Sung China, 960-1279 AD, Part 2",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - The rise of the Tao-hsüeh confucian fellowship in Southern Sung

AU - Tillman, Hoyt

PY - 2015/1/1

Y1 - 2015/1/1

N2 - In the wake of the Jurchen conquest of the Northern Sung (960-1127) in 1127, Chinese literati lived in a politically divided and culturally dislocated world. The loss of the cultural heartland of North China and the failure of many scholar-officials (shih-ta-fu) to remain loyal to the dynasty raised doubts about the state of literati customs and Confucian values. Responding to this political and cultural crisis, Confucian intellectuals defended their literary culture and Tao (Way) in the belief that regeneration of Confucian values would empower them to restore order and expel the alien conquerors. As Hu Hung (1106-61) observed about foreign invasions, "When the Central Plain (Chung-yüan) was without the Tao of the Central Plain, the barbarians entered; when it restored the Tao of the Central Plain, the barbarians returned to their territory." Hu Yüan (993-1057), the first major Sung Confucian thinker, had reportedly distinguished three levels of what was meant by the Tao: t’i (essence or substance of all things); wen (literary and cultural expression, including the Classics, histories, and belles-lettres); and yung (function in governance). These three levels provide modes for analyzing Confucian discourse: what in the West would be called speculative philosophy (Chinese reasoning about a nonempirical level of primary principles), cultural values, and comment on policies. Debates took place among scholars about whose interpretation of the Tao was correct and what reconstruction of the tradition should serve as the standard for building a Confucian society.

AB - In the wake of the Jurchen conquest of the Northern Sung (960-1127) in 1127, Chinese literati lived in a politically divided and culturally dislocated world. The loss of the cultural heartland of North China and the failure of many scholar-officials (shih-ta-fu) to remain loyal to the dynasty raised doubts about the state of literati customs and Confucian values. Responding to this political and cultural crisis, Confucian intellectuals defended their literary culture and Tao (Way) in the belief that regeneration of Confucian values would empower them to restore order and expel the alien conquerors. As Hu Hung (1106-61) observed about foreign invasions, "When the Central Plain (Chung-yüan) was without the Tao of the Central Plain, the barbarians entered; when it restored the Tao of the Central Plain, the barbarians returned to their territory." Hu Yüan (993-1057), the first major Sung Confucian thinker, had reportedly distinguished three levels of what was meant by the Tao: t’i (essence or substance of all things); wen (literary and cultural expression, including the Classics, histories, and belles-lettres); and yung (function in governance). These three levels provide modes for analyzing Confucian discourse: what in the West would be called speculative philosophy (Chinese reasoning about a nonempirical level of primary principles), cultural values, and comment on policies. Debates took place among scholars about whose interpretation of the Tao was correct and what reconstruction of the tradition should serve as the standard for building a Confucian society.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84954093752&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84954093752&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/CHO9781139193061.012

DO - 10.1017/CHO9781139193061.012

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9781139193061

SN - 9780521243308

SP - 727

EP - 790

BT - The Cambridge History of China Volume 5: Sung China, 960-1279 AD, Part 2

PB - Cambridge University Press

ER -