The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Resiliency and Adjustment

Nancy Eisenberg, Tracy Spinrad, Richard Fabes, Mark Reiser, Amanda Cumberland, Stephanie A. Shepard, Carlos Valiente, Sandra Losoya, Ivanna K. Guthrie, Marilyn Thompson, Bridget Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

317 Scopus citations

Abstract

The unique relations of effortful control and impulsivity to resiliency and adjustment were examined when children were 4.5 to 8 years old, and 2 years later. Parents and teachers reported on all constructs and children's attentional persistence was observed. In concurrent structural equation models, effortful control and impulsivity uniquely and directly predicted resiliency and externalizing problems and indirectly predicted internalizing problems (through resiliency). Teacher-reported anger moderated the relations of effortful control and impulsivity to externalizing problems. In the longitudinal model, all relations held at T2 except for the path from impulsivity to externalizing problems. Evidence of bidirectional effects also was obtained. The results indicate that effortful control and impulsivity are distinct constructs with some unique prediction of resiliency and adjustment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-46
Number of pages22
JournalChild development
Volume75
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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