The positivity Scale

Gian Vittorio Caprara, Guido Alessandri, Nancy Eisenberg, A. Kupfer, Patrizia Steca, Maria Giovanna Caprara, Susumu Yamaguchi, Ai Fukuzawa, John Abela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

84 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure positivity, defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college participants. In Study 2, the unidimensionality of the P Scale was corroborated with confirmatory factor analysis in 2 independent samples (N1 = 322; N2 = 457). In Study 3, P Scale invariance across sexes and its relations with self-esteem, life satisfaction, optimism, positive negative affect, depression, and the Big Five provided further evidence of the internal and construct validity of the new measure in a large community sample (N = 3,589). In Study 4, test-retest reliability of the P Scale was found in a sample of college students (N = 262) who were readministered the scale after 5 weeks. In Study 5, measurement invariance and construct validity of P Scale were further supported across samples in different countries and cultures, including Italy (N = 689), the United States (N = 1,187), Japan (N = 281), and Spain (N = 302). Psychometric findings across diverse cultural context attest to the robustness of the P Scale and to positivity as a basic disposition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)701-712
Number of pages12
JournalPsychological Assessment
Volume24
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2012

Fingerprint

Psychometrics
Life Change Events
Self Concept
Reproducibility of Results
Spain
Italy
Statistical Factor Analysis
Japan
Depression
Students
Optimism

Keywords

  • Confirmative factor analysis
  • Measurement invariance
  • Positive orientation
  • Psychometrics
  • Scale development
  • The positivity scale
  • Well-being

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology

Cite this

Caprara, G. V., Alessandri, G., Eisenberg, N., Kupfer, A., Steca, P., Caprara, M. G., ... Abela, J. (2012). The positivity Scale. Psychological Assessment, 24(3), 701-712. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026681

The positivity Scale. / Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John.

In: Psychological Assessment, Vol. 24, No. 3, 09.2012, p. 701-712.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Caprara, GV, Alessandri, G, Eisenberg, N, Kupfer, A, Steca, P, Caprara, MG, Yamaguchi, S, Fukuzawa, A & Abela, J 2012, 'The positivity Scale', Psychological Assessment, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 701-712. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026681
Caprara GV, Alessandri G, Eisenberg N, Kupfer A, Steca P, Caprara MG et al. The positivity Scale. Psychological Assessment. 2012 Sep;24(3):701-712. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026681
Caprara, Gian Vittorio ; Alessandri, Guido ; Eisenberg, Nancy ; Kupfer, A. ; Steca, Patrizia ; Caprara, Maria Giovanna ; Yamaguchi, Susumu ; Fukuzawa, Ai ; Abela, John. / The positivity Scale. In: Psychological Assessment. 2012 ; Vol. 24, No. 3. pp. 701-712.
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