The pinnacle point shell midden complex: A mid-To late holocene record of later stone age coastal foraging along the southern cape coast of South Africa

James R. Mcgrath, Naomi Cleghorn, Betina Gennari, Struan Henderson, Katharine Kyriacou, Cindy Nelson-Viljoen, Peter Nilssen, Leesha Richardson, Christopher Shelton, Jayne Wilkins, Curtis W. Marean

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

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Abstract

Surveys identified a series ofHolocene Later Stone Age shell middens | along the westernmost extent of the Pinnacle Point estate near Mossel Bay, Western Cape, South Africa. Excavations of the Pinnacle Point i Shell Midden Complex (PPSMC) in 2006 and 2007 revealed a ! well-preserved record of human activity ranging from 3000 ± 75 BP to 890 ± 30 BP across seven spatially and temporally distinct shell middens. These ages indicate that the PPSMC spans the recognised introduction of pastoral economies on the south coast. Divided into i Areas 1-5 of the PPSMC, each stratified midden presents an insight | into human subsistence patterns through time. The earlier occupied Areas 1,2 and 4 indicate a coastal forager subsistence pattern, focus- ing on the local terrestrial and marine resources, namely fish and j molluscs foraged from the adjacent shoreline. Area 3, the youngest and only area post-dating the introduction of pastoralism, represents a herder-forager subsistence pattern and displays a stone-lined, heat-retaining earth oven, extensive 'spatial patterning, and the presence of pottery and domestic animals.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages209-219
Number of pages11
JournalSouth African Archaeological Bulletin
Volume70
Issue number202
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015

Fingerprint

Later Stone Age
Shell Middens
Coast
Foraging
South Africa
Late Holocene
Subsistence
Foragers
heat
animal
economy
resources
time
Excavation
Economy
Western Cape
Fish
Pottery
Mollusc
Middens

Keywords

  • Coastal adaptation
  • Later stone age
  • Pastoralism
  • Shell middens
  • South Africa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Archaeology
  • Archaeology

Cite this

The pinnacle point shell midden complex : A mid-To late holocene record of later stone age coastal foraging along the southern cape coast of South Africa. / Mcgrath, James R.; Cleghorn, Naomi; Gennari, Betina; Henderson, Struan; Kyriacou, Katharine; Nelson-Viljoen, Cindy; Nilssen, Peter; Richardson, Leesha; Shelton, Christopher; Wilkins, Jayne; Marean, Curtis W.

In: South African Archaeological Bulletin, Vol. 70, No. 202, 01.12.2015, p. 209-219.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Mcgrath, JR, Cleghorn, N, Gennari, B, Henderson, S, Kyriacou, K, Nelson-Viljoen, C, Nilssen, P, Richardson, L, Shelton, C, Wilkins, J & Marean, CW 2015, 'The pinnacle point shell midden complex: A mid-To late holocene record of later stone age coastal foraging along the southern cape coast of South Africa' South African Archaeological Bulletin, vol 70, no. 202, pp. 209-219.
Mcgrath, James R. ; Cleghorn, Naomi ; Gennari, Betina ; Henderson, Struan ; Kyriacou, Katharine ; Nelson-Viljoen, Cindy ; Nilssen, Peter ; Richardson, Leesha ; Shelton, Christopher ; Wilkins, Jayne ; Marean, Curtis W./ The pinnacle point shell midden complex : A mid-To late holocene record of later stone age coastal foraging along the southern cape coast of South Africa. In: South African Archaeological Bulletin. 2015 ; Vol. 70, No. 202. pp. 209-219
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