We have recently shown by using a recombinant Salmonella typhimurium PhoP(c) strain in mice the feasibility of using a Salmonella-based vaccine to prevent infection by the genital human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16). Here, we compare the HPV16-specific antibody responses elicited by nasal immunization with recombinant S. typhimurium strains harboring attenuations that, in contrast to PhoP(c) are suitable for human use. For this purpose, χ4989 (Δcya Δcrp) and χ4990 [Δcya Δ(crp-cdt)] were constructed in the ATCC 14028 genetic background, and comparison was made with the isogenic PhoP(c) and PhoP- strains. Although the levels of expression of HPV16 virus- like particle (VLP) were similar in all strains, only PhoP(c) HPV16 induced sustained specific antibody responses after nasal immunization, while all strains induced high antibody responses with a single nasal immunization when an unrelated viral hepatitis B core antigen was expressed. The level of the specific antibody responses induced did not correlate with the number of recombinant bacteria surviving in various organs 2 weeks after immunization. Our data suggest that the immunogenicity of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains does not correlate with either the number of persisting bacteria after immunization or the levels of in vitro expression of the antigen carried. Rather, the PhoP(c) phenotype appears to provide the unique ability in Salmonella to induce immune responses against HPV16 VLPs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases